Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram negative rod bacterium. This bacterium spreads widely in various environments, especially in fresh water like in fish cultivation ponds, rivers, lakes, even in sparkling chlorinated drinking water reservoirs. This bacterium is known as a dangerous pathogenic bacterium in water biota like shrimps, oysters, frogs, and fishes (Martin-Carnahan & Joseph, 2005; EPA, 2006). The infection caused by this bacterium can lead to mass dead of fish in short period of time, which in turn causing a great loss of fishes. Formally, in a stable condition when the fish are not in stress, A. hydrophila existing in fish intestine has a role as microflora for water creatures (Illanchezian et al., 2010; Mangunwardoyo et al., 2010).
In order to measure turbidity, a light is shown through the water and is measured in nephelometric turbidity units. A large amount of turbidity in the body of water affects light penetration and productivity in the water. Plus, lakes with a high concentration of turbidity can cause the lake to fill in faster. When water is very cloudy, it can be a sign for health concerns. Turbid water can be used as food and shelter for bacteria and pathogens, which, if not fixed, can cause water-born diseases.
They expel large amounts of salt in their bloodstream through urination (shark saver.org). When bull sharks are in freshwater environments they adapt their process of osmoregulation. Their kidneys can be gradually adjusted to control salt conservation based on the salinity of their surroundings. The kidneys and special glands near their tails recycle the salt within their bodies. They remove more urea from the bloodstream through urination when in freshwater, essentially reversing the regular marine shark method of osmoregultion (jeb.boilogist.org).
Thus documenting high potential carcinogenic risk for fish consumption at Kharg island. Furthermore, biotransformation of PAHs in fish and other aquatic organisms generally accompanied by side effects resulting from the formation of carcinogenic intermediates (Johnson-Restrepo et al., 2008, Lazartigues
Throwing off waste in waters may not just simply pollute the aquatic systems but also it may have bigger and deeper results of it that are not being seen. For example, when you wash your laundry on rivers, you are using detergents but as far as it may concern, there are chemical substances on detergents that may cause the depletion of oxygen. In which, results to eutrophication. Eutrophication is the result of excessive enrichment of water with nutrients that may cause an increase in the growth of algae in the water and higher forms of plants living in on the sea. It may result in a range of undesirable interruption in the marine ecosystem, including a shift in the composition of the flora and fauna which affects the habitats and the reduction of oxygen causing death of fish and other species.
If water became denser as it froze, as most substances do, lakes would freeze from the bottom up and life in would die. Also, as water changes density as its temperature changes, it essentially churns up the water and aids in the movement of oxygen, carbon dioxide, food, and materials in the oceans. Temperature (°C/°F) Density (g/cm3) 100/212 0.9584 60/140 0.9832 25/77 0.9970 4/39.2 1.000 0/32 0.9998 −10/14 0.9981 −30/−22 0.9839 Conversion using density is an important
However oxygen will break down in water, in a comparable kind of way that the bubbles in the fizzy drinks are disintegrated into the fluid, so in order to stay safe under the water for more timeframes it would be better if they could get the oxygen they require from the water, and this is precisely what they do. Fish adaptation to its environment
Stress or death or disorder in growth (due to osmotic pressure) for microorganisms, fishes and plants may occur due to high concentration of salt and minerals in ponds. Salt easily can dissolves in water and therefore its removal is difficult and just costly methods can treat it (Arnold, 1993). Salts and Minerals can raise electrical conductivity (EC) of stormwater. Salt can change taste of water to salty if come with stormwater (Bordin, 1997). F) Acidity and Alkalinity (PH) Potential of hydrogen or PH is an indicator for quantity of hydrogen in stormwater that shows acidity or alkalinity degree in the form of a dimensionless number between 0-14.
How to mitigate the problem of damn impoundment to Tor sp Dam impoundments create barriers across rivers that gives negatives impacts on natural fish populations. The dam impoundment can contribute to the disappearance and exticntion of species and also diminished abundance. Tor sp is one of species affected by dam impoundment. Mitigation measures are really need to prevent the problem from arise. A) Construction of fish passage There are three ways of fish migrations.
Water pollution: The Effect on human health: In 21st century, humanity is facing a major challenge of a water quality issue. The main group includes aquatic contaminants and their effects on human health. Approach to improve pollution of fresh water resources. Many of the major problems that are related to water quality and water quantity issues are facing by humanity in the twenty-first century 1) These problems are to be more provoked in the future by changing climate that results in higher water temperatures, melting of glaciers, and an strengthening of the water cycle 2) With more floods and droughts 3) With respect to human health, the most direct and most rigorous impact is the lack of improved cleanliness, and related to it is the lack of pure drinking water, which currently affects more than a third of the people in the world. Additionally the threats which may include, for example, disclosure to pathogens or to chemical toxicants by means of the food chain (e.g., the result of irrigating plants with contaminated water and of bioaccumulation of toxic chemicals by aquatic organisms, including seafood and fish) or during activity (e.g., swimming in polluted surface water).