The Five Main Effects Of Temperature On Fish Metabolisms: Biological Mechanisms

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Among the various physical influencing the aquatic environment, temperature is of great importance and it plays a critical role in the life of aquatic poikilotherms (Singh et al., 2003). Five major effects of temperature on fish physiological processes include; controlling (setting the pace of development and metabolism), masking (affecting the expression of other environmental factors), limiting (influencing locomotors activity and hence distribution), directing (stimulating an orientation response), and finally, as a lethal agent, i.e., too much or too little can destroy the integrity of fish causing its death. Further, the most dramatic effect of temperature is to act as a lethal agent (Fry, 1947). Every species has an optimal temperature range at which they can be active, grow, reproduce and metabolize (Dodson, 2005). When temperature changes are substantial, fish have been shown to move from areas of warmer water to colder water to avoid thermal stress (Howell et al., 2010). While fish in lake may have cool, deep waters escape increased water temperatures. Fish in shallow lakes and streams often lack cooler refuge options.
Temperature beyond the optimal limits adversely affects fish health by increasing metabolic stress, oxygen consumption and its susceptibility to diseases, which in turn may cause a variety of pathophysiological disturbances that can lead to death of the species (Gordon, 2005; Dalvi et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2014). Under extreme temperatures, organisms

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