1. What is critical thinking? Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally. It is a way of thinking to make reasoned judgements that are logical and where you don 't simply accept all arguments and conclusion you are exposed to but rather have an attitude involving questioning such arguments and conclusions. Critical thinking has been also described as an ability to acknowledge and test previously held assumptions.
Critical realism aims to offer a middle way between naïve realism (the world is as we perceive it) and instrumentalism (our perceptions and concepts are purely instrumental). It encourages critical reflection on perception and the world, hence “critical”. Critical realism has distinct flavors in the works of different authors, for instance, van Huyssteen (1998, 1999) develops a weak form of critical realism set within a postfoundationalist
Positivism vs. Realism vs. Interpretivism Research Philosophy According to positivist paradigm, data that has undergone empirical observation and is explained by means of logical analysis falls under the category of positivism. Therefore, nullifying the harsh external reality of world , be it psychological trauma induced due to poverty , to ever escalating crime rates etc. However, interpretivists also tend to believe that the subjective analysis of the events, unravel the real face of the events. In philosophy, the term realism is defined as the acceptance of reality just the way it is and every entity exists independently, despite our theories regarding them. Positivism is complementary with natural sciences’ experiments, mean while, conducting
Critical thinking brings important issues out and presents them clearly by gathering and considering important information. This type of thinking will lead to well thought out conclusions. It also requires an opened mind and effective conclusions. Critical thinkers take charge of their own mind and this allows taking charge of their lives. They also understand that humans are naturally flawed so they tend to be rational and reasonable while knowing they can fall prey to mistakes in many different ways, like prejudgment or self-interest.
Quite opposite of the philosophical view, Sternberg (1986) states that cognitive psychologists have a tendency to concentrate on how people actually think instead of focusing on how they could or should think under ideal conditions. Further, Lewis and Smith (1993) maintain that those working in cognitive psychology tend to define critical thinking by the types of actions or behaviors critical thinkers can do rather than defining critical thinking by refering to characteristics of the ideal critical thinker or enumerating criteria or standards of “good” thought. From the psychological point of view, Mayer and Goodchild (1990, p.4) define critical thinking as “an active and systematic attempt to understand and evaluate arguments”. Additionally, Sternberg (1986, p.3) defines critical thinking as “the mental processes, strategies, and representations people use to solve problems, make decisions, and learn new concepts”. Besides, Ericson and Hastie (1994) define critical thinking as “a sequence of internal symbolic activities that leads to novel, productive ideas or conclusions” (p.
Different epistemologies offer different views of researchers’ relationships with their object of inquiry. When it comes to ontology, it is the theory of reality or existence (Crotty, 1998). For example, researcher’s ontological beliefs determine not only how they think about reality, but what exists for real
The idea represents an ideal not yet achieved. There is no culture on earth where critical thought is characteristic of everyday personal and social life. Elder & Cosgrove (2013), state how the world is filled with “superficiality, prejudice, bias, lies, deception, manipulation and close-mindedness (to name a few) in every culture in every country throughout the world”. These problems in thinking lead to untold negative implications such as fear, anxiety, hopelessness, pain, suffering and injustices of every imaginable kind. An ideal critical society, according to Elder & Cosgrove (2013), is “a world in which problems are routinely solved through reasoning based on open-mindedness and mutual respect, rather than vested interest and power.
Critical theory distinguishes actualities and regular daily existence as the establishment for individuals; in holding up that individuals will understand the power and their impacts on their lives and have the capacity to defeat them. In Critical Social Theory you need to take a gander at each part of the social issue. For instance you need to analyze the historical backdrop of the issue, the
Critical thinking is one of the core life skills that every individual needs to use in professional or personal life. Rightfully there has been a widely shared enthusiasm about critical thinking in the educational circle. Many academics claim to teach critical thinking skills indirectly through teaching and learning process of the core academic disciplines while others prefer to rather address the issue explicitly. Critical thinking is not just an isolated goal of education; it is both an end in itself and a means for achieving proficiency in studies and beyond. It is a skill transferrable and applicable in myriad contexts both within and outside the realm of formal education.
According to (Le & Short, 2009, p. 4) “Critical Discourse Analysis not only uses a variety of methods developed in various disciplines, but it is also not confined to a specific range of topics that normally belong to a particular discipline”. Critical Discourse Analysis is an important concept in understanding how societies work and how they put language into good use. This is where synthetic personalisation originates from, using language to make a member of a group feel an individual. Addressing an individual in a personal manner goes back to how language is