The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
Each cation gave off a very distinct color, which helped identify the presence of a cation in each solution. However, the main restriction in using a cation flame test is that if there were to be multiple cations in one solution, the color of the flame may be muddled up, which makes it hard to determine which specific cations are present in the solution. Table 1. Colors given off by each cation during the flame test Flame Test Solution: Color of
This allows chemists to obtain the compounds from the sample material for identification by matching results for the presence of an accelerant or its remnants. Samples of the accelerant residue signify the nature of the fire considerably if it is inexplicable based on the location where it was gathered. Questionable substances may be the explanation when suggesting the source and cause of the fire. In any case, until labs can verify the identity of the residue, it is unclear what role it plays in a fire scenario (Icove&DeHaan, p. 560-562). There is no doubt that accelerant detection is a valuable tool in forensic fire investigation.
Metal cations can be identified based on the colors they emitted off when heated in a flame.1 When atoms of the ions that were tested are excited, their electrons move up to higher levels of energy.2 When the electrons relax and return to the original states, they emit photons of specific energy creating wavelengths of light that produces colors.3 The test wire and Bunsen Burner were used to excite the solution in the crucible. The standard metal cations that were tested and their outcomes are as shown in Table 1.
Chemiluminescence is the process of generating light through a chemical reaction. This is due to the product of an excited electronic state that release a photon, or light, as it returns to the ground state. An excited electronic state is caused by the promotion of an electron to another orbital. The energy used to promote the electron will be lost either a radiationless energy or through the release of visible light, such as with the cases of fluorescence—involving the singlet electronic state, which has two unpaired electron with opposite spin quantum numbers—and phosphorescence—involving the triplet electronic state. Which has two unpaired electrons with the same spin quantum
TLC, NMR, and IR spectroscopy were used throughout the process to identify ferrocene and acetylferrocene in addition to evaluating the levels of purity. Evidence: The objective of our experiments was to prepare acetylferrocene from ferrocene. The overall reaction was carried out using 6.1 equivalents of liquid acetic anhydride to 1.8 equivalents of phosphoric acid and concluded with an aqueous workup with NaOH. The initial reaction mixture containing ferrocene, acetic anhydride, and phosphate acid was mixed on a hot stir plate. During this period, reflux was observed, and the mixture appeared dark brown in color.
The final topic, also in the experiment, is the importance of the materials. The acid with the lowest ph level will be the highest acid that works better than the other acids. Higher acids have more hydrogen ions. The baking soda base is a high ph and soaks up hydrogen ions. Based on the results of testing the various liquids will help determine which ph level is best to be used.
This led to the mnemonic, "Lead burns red and makes you dead." or "Red means dead." Although the flame test will show the presence of lead and fusel oils, it will not reveal the presence of methanol, which burns with an invisible flame. A more reliable method of testing is to use scientific testing equipment, such as an alcoholmeter or hydrometer. A hydrometer is used during and after the fermentation process to determine the potential alcohol percent of the moonshine, whereas an alcoholmeter is used after the product has been distilled to determine the volume percent or proof.
In this experiment, method 1 generate a mixture of yellowish crystals and a yellowish gluey product. Using method 2, the product appear as white crystals. Given that the yellow color remain throughout the product in method 2, too much aldehyde was added. It was predicted that this was the source of error because aldehyde was a yellow liquid. In this experiment, 293 mg of aldehyde was weighted for method 1 instead of 250 mg and.
The chemical composition of smoke may have very many unlimited substances and hence the composition of chemicals is informed by the molecular composition of what is burning (Alarie, 2002 p.260). If the room burning contains nitrogen from PU foam, PAN, or nylon the smoke will contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN). If the room burning has PVC i.e. chlorine then the smoke will contain hydrogen chloride, if it is fluorine, then the smoke will contain hydrogen fluoride or if it is bromine then the smoke will contain hydrogen bromide. Such toxins will cause irritation and choking to the person that is caught up in the