Cherokee Indians signed a treaty giving up their land in exchange for territory in Arkansas. Andrew Jackson signed for the act May 28, 1830, then he outlined a drawing December 6th. President Jackson pushed the act because it allowed him to grant unsettled land in
It can be argued that the Missouri Compromise not only put off the start of the Civil War, but was also a cause. Many contributing factors led up to the Civil War in the years following the passing after the Missouri Compromise. Years after the Missouri Compromise went into effect, Congress passed the Tariff Act of 1833, sometimes called the Compromise Tariff. This was proposed by Henry Clay, and called for the gradual reduction of tariffs, ending the Nullification Crisis. In 1846, United States’ President James Polk requested 2 million dollars to purchase land from Mexico following the Mexican-American War.
The North wanted to ban slavery in all states won from the Mexican Cession, while the South wanted to enact new laws on fugitive slaves who escaped; the South also threatened seceding from the Union yet again. Unable to watch his beautiful Union crumble, Clay began solving the problems between the North and the South with a compromise. Clay stated that California would become part of the Union as a free state and organize New Mexico and Utah as territories without any slavery restrictions.
Political factionalism was intensely divisive and led at one point to open civil war in the capital. The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended and specified the major consequence of the war: the forced Mexican Cession of the territories of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo México to the United States in exchange for $15 million. In addition, the United States assumed $3.25 million of debt owed by the Mexican government to U.S. citizens. Mexico recognized the loss of Texas and thereafter cited the Rio Grande as its national border with the United
The Creek Indians were defeated and forced to sign treaties that would relinquish twenty-million acres of land. In Jacksons presidency, he was approved by Congress to fulfill the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This act granted land exchange which placed the natives in new property under U.S. protection. “Jackson and his followers were free to persuade, bribe, and threaten tribes into signing removal treaties and leaving the Southeast.”, he succeeded to where 50,000 eastern Indians were moved. Soldiers escorted the natives to their new territory.
Sectional Tensions Gadsden Purchase: The Gadsden Purchase was a treaty made in 1853 by James Gadsden of South Carolina. Gadsden was appointed by Secretary of War Jefferson Davis to secure a chunk of Mexico for a railway route. He was able to negotiate land along the southern tips of current day Arizona and New Mexico, the northern border of Mexico, for $10 million from Spaniard Santa Anna. The land Gadsden had managed to obtain would have made making a southern railroad much more simple than cutting through more northern mountains. The Gadsden Purchase lead to criticism by Northerners who were skeptical of paying large amounts for a dessert similar to the size of South Carolina.
In 1848, California became part of the United States. A Treaty was set into place at that time to allow the native people to become U.S. citizens. However, because the government failed to live up to the agreed terms of the Guadeloupe Hidalgo Treaty, which was signed as a peace agreement to end the war between the United States and Mexico, the native people suffered horrendously during the next several decades. The confrontation between the Anglo’s and the Indians in California was horrific and brutal to say the least. Throughout the state, the native people were the victims of several inconceivable tragedies brought on by disease, starvation and massacres against them.
Perhaps the most controversial of Jackson’s actions during his presidency is the Indian Removal Act of 1830 that lead to the Trail of Tears. Soon after becoming president, Jackson passed the former act which called for the relocation of native tribes from their homelands to a designated “Indian territory” in present-day Oklahoma. While Jackson had a clear idea of his plans, he befriended the tribes and promised them prosperity, friendship, and the possibility of becoming civilized children of God. In other words, he, the symbol of reassurance in America, stabbed the backs of all natives. Beyond the question of Jackson 's morality, what was the ultimate reason behind the removal?
The Navajo were a very dominant tribe in the Americas, but were restrained to life within the range of four mountains that surrounded their land, due to religious beliefs. In the year of 1848, the United States army appeared in their lands and took over 11,000 Navajo people and marched them hundreds of miles at gunpoint to a reservation in New Mexico. Contrary to many other tribes, the Navajo did not use violence or attack the Americans to try to escape their reserve. Rather, they wrote a treaty on a simple stolen sheet of ledger paper. This treaty entitled them to the land between the Four Sacred Mountains that their tribe was bound to.
Soon after Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon for fifteen million dollars, he sent Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, myself, Drew Schwering, and a several other men to go and explore the Territory. We were tasked to journal all the findings and make maps. Our expedition started in 1804 and concluded in 1806, two and a half years later. Jefferson wanted our group to explore the territory because no one from the United States, and he wanted to find out all the resources the land had to offer. We traveled from St. Louis, up the MIssouri River, cross the Rocky Mountains, travel the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean by Keelboat, horses, and canoes in two and a half years.
The native policies of George Washington were formed on the basis of whether a native tribe was a supporter or an enemy of the United States. Following the American Revolution, George Washington, with the consent of Congress, ordered Major General John Sullivan to obliterate the Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca (three of the six native tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy who allied with Great Britain during the American Revolution). Despite this fact, George Washington maintained peaceful relations with Native American that supported the United States. For example, Georgia formed treaties with the Creeks that resulted in the cession of land which was not recognized by the Creeks. This issue was resolved by the Treaty of New York, which restored
The Confederate invasion caught the Union forces off guard. The Union found themselves scrambling to defend New Mexico and Southern Colorado. Colonel Canby decided to reorganize his forces in the area and consolidate at Fort Craig, a main supply depot and fortified position in the area. Col. Canby successfully defends Fort Craig but in the First major battle after the confederate invasion, the Battle of Valverde, the Union loses the city of Albuquerque. Before the Union forces are defeated, the Governors of Colorado and Kansas receive word and assemble a volunteer force.
In the book I Wish I’d Been There, there are two chapters that can easily be compared, the McGillivray Moment and Chief Joseph Surrenders, for they both had to do with Native Americans, and how they were kicked off their land. Both were made promises that weren’t kept,by American Generals. even if meant twisting the rules of war and going against the law. In The McGillivray Moment, President George Washington was worried that the Creek Nation was going to over inhabit the land to the west of the Mississippi river, also known as the land of America’s future. Washington was now faced with a problem, “The land west of the Mississippi must be inhabited by whites…, and the rights of the Native Americans to their tribal land must be protected.” That’s when Washington met Chief McGillivray, McGillivray was one of the,” twenty-seven Indian Chiefs representing all the major tribes of the Creek Nation” that paraded into the capital of the newly created
In 1851, the government decided that there was a Native American problem that needed to be removed. Around ten thousand Native Americans gathered at a Fort in Wyoming to talk out a treaty. The Treaty of Fort Lamarie allowed white settlers to use Native American land, for the government would give them peace
United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians, 448 U.S. 371 (1980) is a case that involves the Sioux Nation and the United States government, and it regards the United Stages Government authority to reneged a treaty and reclaimed land given to the Sioux Nation Of Indians, and if congress violated the separation of powers clause when it amended the Indian Claims commissions in 1978. The Sioux nation was a collection of tribes united in a confederacy in the States of South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, and Minnesota. In 1868 the Sioux Nation signed the Fort Laramie treaty that granted them the Sioux Nation reservation in South Dakota, including the Black Hills, but took away all of their lands positions outside of the reservation. The United