The Great Cat Massacre by Robert Darnton is a collection of six essays that examines the cultural history of France in the first half of the eighteenth century. These essays engage an array of documents in order to reconstruct the world views of French society- an attempt at the history of mentality (p. 5). The title refers to the most well-known of these essays which focuses on a set of incidents that occurred within the printing industry during the 1730s. These incidents were a result of poor labor relations between printers who worked and lived on the Rue Saint- Severin in Paris and their apprentices (p. 76). The latter of which were subjected to poor working conditions, beatings, and near starvation at the hands of their teacher.
Robert Darnton’s Great Cat Massacre took place in the 1730s, and shows the angst the local journeymen had against the social system they lived in. The cat massacre was awful in its own right, but represented the disenfranchisement between the journeymen and the entrenched masters. The Cat Massacre was a sign of the changing times as the guild system of the late medieval and early, Early Modern Period when the journeymen would advance to become their own master was replaced with a monopoly system where few a masters were in control and most journeymen had no hope of advancement in society.
This essay will be focusing on the world where his story “The Black Cat” takes place. This world of Edgar Allen Poe’s “The Black Cat” is unnatural, with heavy themes of violence. Characters in this world behave unnaturally with violence and cruelty, and murder is commonplace. “The Black Cat”" starts off a man who loves his black cat Pluto. Though he loves Pluto he begin starts to have outbursts due to alcoholism.
Edgar Allan Poe addresses the dark and gruesome side of human nature in his writing “The Black Cat”, which during that time and even now are perceived as radical ideas. This dark human nature is displayed in Poe’s writing as the narrator recalls the happenings of a most erratic event. The narrator, a pet lover with a sweet disposition, in this story succumbs to the most challenging aspects of human nature including that of addiction, anger, and perverseness. To the Christian believer, human’s sinful flesh leads people to do wrong because that is their natural tendency.
Poe develops suspense in his narrative “the Black Cat”, through his character’s personalities, such as; anger, hostility, and hate. The events in the story that carried suspense would be death, murder, and immorality. Personalities; hate, hostility, anger, these feelings are extremely important in Poe’s story “the black cat”. Furthermore, the narrator is depicted as murderous short-fused and immoral in the sense that he kills Pluto only because Pluto loved him.
The following night after the narrator kills the cat, the house catches on fire and the next day the narrator comes back to the house to see the ruins and came to see a group of people around a strange bas relief on the wall. The narrator was terrified when he saw what the bas relief was and the narrator writes, “There had been a rope about the animal’s neck” (Poe 3).
This shows how destructive the war and its tools are. The war destroys Verdun so much the French give up trying to use it in the future. In the book the horses that are used for war are killed and have to suffer their wounds because the soldiers that were not harmed have to take care of the wounded soldiers first. This shows the savagery of the weapons when used on innocent animals such as these
It was dominated by social antagonism between the bourgeoisie and the aristocracy. The paper aims at providing an insight into the factors that caused the French revolution and the themes that emerged during the revolution. It further explores the significance of the revolution and its significance to date towards our system of thinking and interaction. This literature also examines the French revolution and how human nature was viewed. It elaborates on how human beings can be self-interested, savage and yet socially conscious or kind.
Baudelaire begins his poem with a command to the cat, “Viens”, which suggests his authority and desire for the cat. Within the first quatrain the poet uses the word “beau” to describe the cat and the cats eyes. The poet’s complimentary manner proves his attraction towards the feline animal. The second line of the poem urges a sense of danger, “Retiens les griffes de ta patte”. It is thought that the cat holds a potentional threat, however, it seems the cat can be controlled by the use of the imperative “Retiens” and from the previous line where the poet summons the cat.
By making an example out of these animals; some of whom had apparently associated themselves with Snowball, other members of the working class do not want to speak against Napoleon, or the slain animals’ fate could also become theirs too. In this case, both psychological and physical fear control the animal’s actions and
This is intriguing as it portrays the occurring chaos in France. It demonstrates how strict and revolting the peasants have become by stationing on the border of France ready to kill whoever crosses their path. This is a great representation
This technique can be used to strengthen the story and the meaning behind it. Voltaire is a prime example. The story of Candide is a typical hero’s journey; the protagonist is on a quest and faces multiple hardships along the way. Considering that plot has been played out many, many times
Final Assignment of English Literature Reading BY YANG ZONGYOU, D01 “The False Gems”by the great writer Guy de Maupassant is a miracle that draws a delicate and precise image of France in the late 19th century. Written in an objective view, woven with sarcasm, this little piece of art reflects the truth of the society and humanity in its era without any obvious rhetoric, like a real old gem that shimmers constantly and gorgeously, leaving an ample space of ambiguity for readers to ponder over and over again. “The False Gems” seems to be objective, however, on the contrary, the plot of the story itself is a barrel of irony, in which the author 's opinion and emotion lies deeply — the genuine ones are found fake, while the false ones turn out to be real; knowing everything is not always good. Mrs. Lantin 's before-and-after contrary is ironic. At the very beginning of the story, everyone is convinced that Mrs. Lantin was a virtuous woman.
In Natalie Z. Davis' reconstruction of the famous case of identity theft in sixteenth-century France, following the eight-year absence Martin Guerre, for three years, Arnaud is accepted by family and friends as the authentic Martin Guerre, that is, until his dispute with his uncle and father in law Pierre Guerre over the family inheritance, essentially questioning their Basque customs. Consequently, Pierre Guerre accuses Arnaud of being an impostor, ultimately leading to a second trial in which the court condemns Arnaud to death upon the arrival of the real Martin Guerre. Concluding the case, the court declared Bertrande (Martin’s wife) and the Guerre family victims in the trial. Yet, unlike the participants of the case, Davis does not conform to the idea of Bertrande as a mere victim in the case, but rather, an accomplice motivated by love, social standing, and religion. In framing her book on The Return of Martin Guerre, Davis not only provides a chronological account of events, but also a psychological analysis and interpretation of this isolated case as a representation of the lives of the French peasantry.
Marie De France’s portrayal of “Bisclavert” is a commentary on the expected social roles in the mediaeval time period and how deviations from upholding these expectations lead to undesirable consequences. Her allusions to the importance of maintaining loyalty and chivalry allows one to determine the significance that these values held in society. For example, the betrayal of a husband by the wife was deemed to be prohibited and a harsh punishment would have been considered the norm. All major characters in this lai do not uphold to their social roles, and as a result are subjected to negative consequences. The author introduces the character of a werewolf which she uses as a tool to symbolize a man’s desire for rage and revenge.