Steam engines and Industrialization provided Europeans with vastly superior transportation: steamships, railroads, superior communications: telegraph and superior military power. The uneven power relationship that so favored Europeans made imperialism possible and hard to resist. (Lecture notes 21st October) However, by the 19th century, Europe’s dominance almost came to its end. Many factors contributed but in my opinion, it can be argued that mostly due to the competitive system and bit of industrialization, Europe’s dominance came to a decline. Due to competitive state system, the Europeans competed with each other and this is how the Industrialization revolution came into being as well; to compete with each other.
Firstly, European empires in the Americas as well as Russian, Chinese, Mughal, and Ottoman empires are different in their development because Europe interacted and depended on other regions. The Atlantic Ocean connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Strayer states how “these two ‘old worlds’ were joined, increasingly creating a single biological regime, a ‘new world’ of global dimensions.” The reason for this difference is that Europe constructed their empires across the Atlantic Ocean in the Americas, or the New World, unlike their Russian, Chinese, Mughal, and Ottoman counterparts. This resulted in an advantage for the Europeans because they had access to new resources and ideas. This was accomplished through the Columbian Exchange, which is the network of migration and trade within the Atlantic Ocean.
Mao’s goals for China were impossible to achieve as he believed the country could make a century’s worth of achievements in as little as a few decades (B). Although Mao claimed that these achievements were to be accomplished in the interests of the Chinese population, it is clear that the damage caused by the Great Leap Forward was too extreme to reflect a policy which was in the interests of the people. Mao introduced the idea of communes as he believed these would increase production.
However, the Ottomans were partially sustained by the growing rivalries of Europe and often let the British aid in their desperate fight to maintain their empire, albeit reluctantly. The Manchu were very honorable and considered non-Chinese to be barbarians. Unfortunately, this thinking prevented the Chinese from learning from western technology and science. As a result the West was able to easily defeat the Qing in key battles such as the Opium War in 1839 to 1841. In contrast to the Ottomans, the Qing was unable to compromise with the West and Europe forced its way into China.
Imperialism In the 19th and 20th centuries, various powerful nations sent colonizers to dominate weaker nations and expand their influence. This domination is called imperialism, which is still practiced today in moderation. Among the many countries shaped by imperialism were India and China. These two large countries were both colonized by the British who were one of the greatest imperialistic powers at that time. Although both India and China were colonized by the British, there were many differences between the two countries and the effects imperialism had on them.
Was the Meiji Restoration a revolution? By adapting the motto of the Meiji Restoration “wealthy country and strong arms,” the Meiji Restoration was successful instilling a sense of nationhood standing against the Western Powers and have transformed Japan into an economic juggernaut having one of the top economy in the world. The Meiji Restoration was a significant turning point in Japanese history because it led to revolutionary changes in Japan’s economic and political structures. But whether the Meiji Restoration is a revolution is still up for debate. The Meiji Restoration may not be a revolution in the traditional sense however it can’t be denied that the steps taken and changes made were revolutionary.
Nationalism is a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence. We wouldn’t be America if it wasn’t for Britain taxing our fore fathers to the point of revolution. In conclusion, Imperialism is still not as good as other options for foreign policy. Though the failures are numerous, Imperialism has just as many benefits. Learn from Britain’s mistakes and maybe your Imperialistic foreign policy might actually work out.
Nationalism is about having the greater love, pride for one’s state, its about loyalty and devotion to the shared cause of nation building. For the most part of early nineteenth century it played a uniting role in European politics which gave them some form of stability and common cause to fight for. So, when the fervor of nationalism crosses that invisible line then it leads to Imperialism. Imperialism is about forcing other people, foreign territory into subjugation who are different. Japanese attack on China and Korea before and during second world war was a form of Imperialism.
These civilizations were technologically different, yet the negligible effect this has on making these trends allude to more than sheer coincidence. Perhaps these trends could help explain other military revolutions. Regardless, these six trends help describe how these two medieval societies responded to the military revolutions that challenged the military thinking, power structures, and cultural views of their time. The zero-sum game of weapons is the first trend. In both societies, it is quite clear that horsemen rapidly lost favor on the battlefield as pikemen or arquebusiers
That is why the West is alarmed by these developing states, such as China. For China is no doubt a big challenger. With the influence of the US and the originality and ingenuity of Asia, China would have bigger influence than the Americas if given the chance. China has shown its capability in competing economically, geographically and militarily and this is something that alarms the whole world. This disturbs the West’s peace as of course, it had strived to get to the top and would want to keep its place at the top and not be replaced by another
To D’lorenzo these ideas would get in the way of a total free market, and reminded him more of Imperial Europe than the United States that the Founding Fathers wanted to create (one based on as much economic freedom as possible). This to me is very valid. Lincoln’s platform is derived from the Whig party as he was once one. Lincoln also supported many protectionist style Tariffs such as both Morrill Tariffs. To D’Lorenzo these were against the founding fathers
Guns, Germs, & Steel questions 1. Yali’s question is “Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own?” In this statement, Yali is questioning why different races and civilizations developed differently. He is curious to see if one races intelligence is superior to the others, and if perhaps that explains why technology was introduced to europeans faster than others. (14) 2. Three main objections to answering Yali’s question are its justification to domination, the eurocentric approach to history, and conveys the idea that civilization is crucial for human happiness.
Where Asia or more specifically the Chinese had an abundance in resources and a vast network of merchants, the structures which secured their society faltered in the face of adversity. Abu-Lughod’s central premise runs counter to the popular idea of Europeans becoming the de facto world power by the age of colonization or the sixteenth century, where it . The overarching historical themes in Abu-Lughod’s Before European Hegemony are the prevalence of economic trade, the culture and society which existed within these nations, and the events which shifted the necessary influence to tip the balance of power in favor of Europe’s nations. The theme of trade being the cornerstone of the then sovereign powers is discussed and detailed by Abu-Lughod, often citing instances of where it became absent or or less maintained being the signs of weakened and vulnerable nation. The trading which occurred within the Middle East often offered several connections to Asia, with many routes allowing for the region to experience economic prosperity equal to that of Europe and Asia.
The spread of Islam and China greatly contributed to world development during the 1500’s. Christendom in Europe enhanced Christianity throughout the Byzantine Empire. The European forces of Christendom established new colonies, but Muslims easily invaded them. The European’s technological advancements were inferior to Chinese and Islam officials. European civilizations expanded trade routes throughout China and Islam.
The US was not always as big and powerful as it is today; there was a long journey to come this far. The US was a democratic republic and was built on a foundation consisting of a representative government that promotes individual freedom and liberty. As they strived to compete with the powerful nations of Europe on their way to becoming a world power, they had to abandon their isolationist ways and move toward a policy of imperialism. Their military and economic conquests showed a disregard for those very foundations with which their country was built upon. The way the Native Americans were treated dates back to Indian Removal Act of 1830.