Marx’s ideas on this exploitation refers to a feudalistic driven society, where the performance of labour is over and above what is needed to produce goods consumed by the labourer. An example to sustain his theory is of when the exploiter ends up with a surplus. The proletariat or working class is therefore not paid the full value of what she or he produces, the rest is the surplus value which is the capitalist’s profits, and according to Marx known as the ‘unpaid labour of the working class’. The bourgeoisie force down wages of the proletariat to increase their own profits and this creates a more direct conflict between the classes and gives rise to the development of class consciousness in the working class. The working class, through trade unions and other struggles becomes conscious of itself as an exploited class.
Marxism and feminism are two sides of a coin. Encarta reference library defines Marxism as “a theory in which class struggle is a central element in the analysis of social change in western societies”. Feminism is defined as a recognition and critique of male supremacy combined with efforts to change it. Marxism is an economic and social system. Holland Arrowsmith explains Marxism as a term which refers to “a hugely diverse set of social, economic, philosophical, historical and cultural theories”.
The characters Catherine and Heathcliff, a Marxist perusing, take into account financial beliefs, concentrating on the relationship between classes, and the collaboration between rich and poor. This viewpoint sees Heathcliff as the working class, climbing over his oppressors in a gallant battle for a libertarian culture inside the microcosm of 'Wuthering Heights ', “in a society where the importance of inheritance and familial social status dictates the class system,’’(Critical study of Texts – “The richness of a text lies in its ability to lend itself to different readings” ) ‘’structure of ideas and values which related to the Bronte ' ambiguous situation within the class-system of their society.’’(Palgrave,
Marxist Critique of The Great Gatsby Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald grew up in an era of appearing successful corporations, industrial boom, and an increased focus on financial value over a person’s internal attributes. The radical economic shift from the early 1900s to the 1920s to capitalism altered the core, accepted societal beliefs in a major way, one that is very evident in Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. As a man who suffered from a number of the negative effects of capitalism’s influence on human connection, F. Scott Fitzgerald reflected his personal experiences through his writing. Fitzgerald used The Great Gatsby as an outlet to express his hidden, personal frustration about his reality during the 1920s; therefore, each major character
The most well-known and important theories of class are those developed by Karl Marx and Max Weber. Marx and Weber contributed to sociology in many different ways. A significant element is their diverse approach to social class. Marx put great importance on class, which he observed as an impartially given trait of the economic structure of society. He sees the primary split between the owners of capital and the workers who did not own capital.
The bourgeoisie are the owners of means of production such as factories and other businesses. He believed that the wealth of the bourgeoisie depend on the work that the proletariat carried out, meaning that without the proletariats there won’t be wealth for the bourgeoisies. Marx refers to proletariats as laborers who do not get any piece of what they produce rather they are obliged to give everything they produce to the capitalist, the bourgeoisies. Both Weber and Marx believe that stratification results to inequality in a way that the rich will forever remain rich and the poor will remain poor. (Marx&
Structural theory and Social Action Structural theory implies that the structures of society are the most important influences upon the individuals in that society. Marx assumed that there were two main classes, i.e. the capitalists and the proletariat. Individuals belonging to the proletariat have relatively little freedom of choice and materialistic considerations dominate how society is formed. Karl Marx predicted that the rich would become richer and the poor would become poorer.
Marxist Politics – Introduction Frederick Engels painted a clear picture of Marxist politics and the ultimate reason for revolution, “the State is nothing more than a machine for the oppression of one class by another.”1 In Marxism, the struggle to control the forces of production is the dynamic force behind human development. The economic system determines other features of a society, including its political structure. To Karl Marx, the “economic structure of society [is] the real foundation on which rise moral, legal and political superstructures and to which definite forms of social consciousness correspond.” 2 Thus, to a Marxist, particular political systems are grounded in and arise from particular economic systems. A socialist economy,
It has also shown light on the differences and issues triggered between the wealthy and the poor in society. The wealthy is classified as the persons who owned large portions of land and industries: hence, they control sources of revenue, employment and the lower working class in general. Marx sought to understand the reason behind the popularity of poverty when there is an abundance of riches. He came to a conclusion that the reason was capitalism. Capitalism is an economic system where the means of production is owned by private individuals.
From the above, we can see the essential role played by the capitalist society and its relation to the theory of Marxist aesthetics under the discussion of Marxism. To develop a further understanding in the art history related to Marxism, the materialist art history should also not to be missed out in the context of Marxist aesthetics. From the point of view of Marx and Engels, they believed that the forms of society is the most hostile to art when the society is developed into industrial capitalism in a full way, while the division of material labor and mental labor may have to go through the point of extremeness. (Klingender, 1943) The art history of materialism has focused on the production modes of art, in the other words, the labor of