Historical timeline for this incredible civilization started early, they were able to establish themselves well before their first encounter with the Aryans(1500 B.C.). Continuing with the Persians and Greeks1 headed by Cyrus and Darius I and Alexander The Great, Bactrians, Parthians, Shakas and Kushans2, and the Roman empire headed by Augustus Caesar3. The invasion of the White Huns began in the turn of the century(450 C.E. ), Islamic Mughal(Mongol) Empires, and other foreign power(among them the Portuguese, the French, the Dutch
According to them, the Indus Civilization represents the earliest manifestation of urban development in the plains of the Indus Valley and its extension along the Arabian Sea-coast. The four principal settlements so far excavated provide the material to reconstruct the cultural content of the civilization. Two lies in Pakistan: Harappa, usually identified with Hariyupiya of the Rig-Veda, is situated on an old bed (sukbrawa) of the river Ravi in Sahiwal District of Punjab, and Mohenjo-daro4 (literally ‘mound of the dead’) is on the right bank of the Indus river in Larkana District of Sind. The other two sites are in western India; Lothal is situated on the Sabarmati river at the head of the Gulf of Cambay on the west coast of India, and Kalibangan (literally ‘black bangles’) lies some 310 km north-west of Delhi along the left bank of the now-dry Ghaggar (old Sarasvati) river in northern
It has really been used as a land, social, or religious identifier for people indigenous to South Asia. The certain criticalness of the term Hindu has progressed with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to India in the initially decaded through the compositions of the medieval era, the term Hindu surmised a geographic, ethnic or social identifier for people living in Indian subcontinent around or past Sindhu stream. By the sixteenth century, the term began to imply inhabitants of India who were not Turks or Muslims. Lipner understands where hinduism as a banyan tree, whose roots and branches are interconnected both above and underground.
Gandhara is the name of a historic nation (Mahajanapada), located in northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan. It changed into located especially in the valley of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau, Taxila and on the Kabul River. Its foremost cities have been Peshawar, Taxila and Charsadda. The dominion of Gandhara lasted from the early 1st millennium BC to the eleventh century advert. Gandhara is the vicinity that now encompass of Peshawar valley, Mardan, Swat, Dir, Malakand, and Bajuaur businesses in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Taxila in the Punjab, and as much as Jalalabad in Afghanistan.
We might have heard about Sanskrit before, most of the people know that it is one of the languages, but they don’t know the history of the language or how Sanskrit is use in many countries as a root or as loanwords. We are going to go deeply to see about this language Sanskrit and see how is it the mother of all languages. Sanskrit implies perfected or refined, Sanskrit is a dialect spoken in India, started in the second millennium BC, up to this point Sanskrit is one of the 22 booked dialects in India. The Sanskrit language came in with the Aryans invasion. When the Aryans came to India they brought Sanskrit with them.
In 90 AD Vedishri, son of the Satavahana king, Satakarni, the "Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made Junnar, thirty miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom.The land of Maharashtra was also ruled by Kharavela, Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Vakataka, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, and Western Chalukya before Yadava rule In the early 14th century the Yadava dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler, Ala-ud-din Khilji. Then Muhammad bin Tughluq occupied some parts of the Deccan, and he shifted capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. He ruled this region up to 1347, later the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over this region under his control for next 150 years. Bahmani Sultanate was ended. And the religion of Bahamani Sultanate was run up to 1518.
The earliest historical reference to Sindhi is in the Nātyaśāstra, a dramaturgical text that was written between 200 B.C and 200 A.D. Evidence for Sindhi as a written language dates to a Sindhi translation of the Islamic Qur’an in 883 A.D., followed a century later by a Persian translation of the ancient Indian religious epic Mahābhārata taken from a language thought to be Old Sindhi. Dating the emergence of Sindhi in the evolution of Indo-Aryan is a matter of some controversy. Various theories, ably summarized by Khubchandani (2000), trace Sindhi to the Vrācada Apabhramśa or to an earlier pre-Vedic Prakrit language. Although Trumpp (1872), in his authoritative Sindhi grammar, describes Sindhi as a more ‘pure Sanskritical’ language compared
Alexander was the son of Philip and in his 13 years of accomplishments he was named Alexander the Great. • The historical importance of the word Darius III is to describe how the Persians fought back to Alexander. The reason was that the king was alarmed that they were losing to Alexander and he trained and convinced his men to fight back. • The historical importance of the phrase Hellenistic is to describe cultural diffusion. Hellenistic culture is a blend of Egyptian, Persian, and Indian culture.
Indonesian is familiar with Sanskrit words especially because some Indonesian words are borrowed from Sanskrit. Until the 15th century Hinduism was the major religion in Indonesia. When the Indians came, they used Sanskrit to spread Hinduism. Although some Sanskrit words used in Garudayana cannot be found in Indonesian dictionary, these words are used together or combined with Indonesian words. Bima’s skills are named Candra Khara, Candra Arda and Candra Purnama.
On the contrary, it seems to be trying to give expression to the Indian experience of the modern predicament, while frankly modelling itself on Western originals. Another notable writer and one of the leading personalities of the Gandhian age was K.A.Abbas who wrote Inqilab (1955). Although written during 1942 to 1049, the novel actually covers the earlier period commencing from Rowaltt Bill and the Jallianwalla Baugh tragedy to the Salt Satyagraha and the Gandhi Irwin Pact of 1931. The novelist’s ambitious intention is to project the Gandhian Revolutionary Age in its entirety. Inquilab means revolution.