First, it would be important to know the sensitivity of many people who are at risk to develop this disorder. Second, the specificity of how many people who are being affected by diabetes in order to start the treatment and to prevent more complications. This could be considered as the most difficult level because not everyone will be complied with the screening process. Next, other aspect that can be affected the screening outcomes is the implications of false negative and false positive results which are inevitable given to the people that have been screening. Last, screening is costly effective.
The public health model is more difficult to define than the other two models due to not everyone understands the concept of public health. The public health model is concerned with individuals’ who have problems but extends the concept of health care beyond just the normal medical treatment due to individuals problems may be linked to social issues as well (Woodside & McClam, 2015). The public health model looks at larger populations and not just individuals by actually collecting data and examining this data to determine the overall problem (Woodside & McClam, 2015). By collecting and examining this data the public health model is used to alleviate health problems that have consequences for society in general, like health insurance for
Due to the infancy in the field cited by McKibben& McPherson there are issues in the potential application of intersectionality to public health. It is unclear how research on intersectionality ought be conducted given how few guidelines exist (Bowleg 2012: 4). Both critical race theory and intersectionality accept that race is a social construct and that racism can intersect with other identities to change the way oppression manifests itself (Bowleg 2012: 5). Crucially, critical race theory has had an impact on discourse related to public health (Bowleg 2012: 5). With that said, intersectionality is able to provide a unifying language for issues involving intersecting identities and provides a more informative discussion by studying different identities together (Bowleg 2012: 6).
If these issues aren’t resolved then this patient will continue to have these issues. This is known as the ‘upstream downstream’ principle. In this cause the living environment and education would be the upstream issues which may not be as obvious to see however the chest infections would be the downstream problem. If this patient is only treated for the primary problem then in the long term will cost the state more and will have negative effects on their health. The travelling community are one group of people who often have very poor health outcomes due to poor determinants of health.
According to Chin (2005), populations at risk are the individuals that are mostly susceptible to disease such as underprivileged, weak, incapacitated, economically disadvantaged, homeless, racial and ethnic minorities, individuals with low knowledge or education, victims of abuse or maltreatment, and individuals with social risk elements such as isolation . While vulnerable population is a group or groups that are more possible to develop health-related problems, have more trouble gaining access to health care to address those health difficulties, and are more likely to experience a poor consequence or shorter life span because of those health conditions. That is, there are provoking factors that place individuals at greater risk for persistent poor health status than other at-risk individuals (Maurer, 2013). Risk and vulnerability are interrelated to each other.
Continuously, Peter Singer’s solution would be extremely beneficial in some areas in the world that are in poverty. This would help everyone receive what they need, including health care and an education. However, it is important to consider that the benefits do not always outweigh the negatives. We must address that falling into poverty is simply human error, and something we actually control. The impoverished have the option to do something about the situation that they have been put in, yet they choose to become dependent on the rest of the world.
Sources define the term health disparities as differences between different communities and their health care, as well as the health differences that are linked to disadvantages in communities including age, gender, racial or ethnic group, and geographic locations. Health disparities are directly related to the distribution of social, political, economic, and environmental resources. The CDC explains multiple factors health disparities are caused by including poverty, environmental threats, inadequate access to health care, individual and behavioral factors, and educational inequalities (William, 2011). Inequities in education have a key relationship with health disparities. Adolescents associated with social and health problems tend to drop out of school.
Health, according to sociologist Talcott Parson, is “of the roles and tasks for which he (sic) has been socialized” (Parsons, 1972: 117). This is a profoundly sociological view and definition of health. It does not contain any biological or physical health aspects, except referring to the capacity to fulfil one’s socially ascribed roles in society (Conrad, 1992). In heath, sociologists are interested in the institution of medicine, in particular, the process of medicalisation (Dew & Kirkman 2002). In Western cultures, the biomedical model is the medical paradigm used to diagnose and explain a person’s illness, corresponding to a malfunction of biological processes (McLennan, Manus & Spoonley, 2010).
The more traditional framework that would have been used would have been the scientific biomedical framework. This framework is a model that does not take into consideration the psychological and social factors which may be contributing to a person’s illness; the illness is simply seen in biological terms. This ideology is far outdated, and one can see this simply by reading the WHO’s most recent definition of health, mentioned in the opening of this paper. This model views medications as the resolution to all illnesses, however we know that in today’s society, medications can often cause further problems- for example the creation of superbugs such as MRSA in the hospital system, bugs that as a result of overexposure to antibiotics have now become immune to the medication’s effects, and can therefore be detrimental to a patient’s health. By choosing to concentrate merely on biological impacts on health, a vast array of other factors, such as the environment, the money invested in public health care systems and many more, are ignored.
Ethnic disparities in health and health care impose costs on many parts of society, including individuals, families, communities, health care organizations, employers, health plans, and government agencies, including Medicare and Medicaid. These costs include direct expenses associated with the provision of care to a sicker and more disadvantaged population as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity, lost wages, absenteeism, family leave to deal with avoidable illnesses, and lower quality of life. For hospitals and clinics, language barriers may result in higher costs because of less efficient utilization of institutional resources. For example, an incomplete medical history truncated by a language barrier may lead a physician to compensate for possible deficiencies in the patient interview by obtaining more laboratory tests and other diagnostic evaluations. (Hampers et al., 1999).