There where many factors that led China to political unification in contrast to India. One factor is, dynasties such as the Zhou Dynasty who kept the same political system as its predecessors, where India had changed many things and continued to change political and social systems. India was very fragmented in political unification because, India was and still is a land of diversity. Ancient India was also not as organized as Ancient China in ruling. When the Zhou kingdom had started to end and break apart into many powerful states a “relativity young state of Qin located in the original homeland of the Zhou, emerged as a key player in conflicts”(p. 78) that would eventually bring down the Zhou Dynasty and give way to the Qin Dynasty where it was ruled with ruthless efficiency(p.79).
China, up until the Qin Dynasty, consisted of independent states controlled by kings fighting each other for land and power. This time period was called The Era of Warring States, which lasted two hundred years. After this time, the Qin Dynasty rose to power. They conquered all other dynasties, and established a centralized government, unifying China for the first time. The dynasty that succeeded the Qin, the Han, continued the centralized government and they started a westward expansion that would encourage trade and cultural diffusion. The Qin and Han Dynasties were similar in that they both believed in a strong centralized government, which strengthened and unified their empires, but they differed in that the Qin followed the strict Legalism while the Han followed the more flexible Confucianism, and the way they interacted with outsiders; the Qin tended to be more defensive of outsiders while the Han were more interactive and wanted to build relationships with foreigners.
The Qin Dynasty was China’s first dynasty. A Dynasty is a line of hereditary rulers of a country. Because it was the first unified, multi-national and power-centralized state in China, it is considered to be one of the most popular Dynasties. The first person to call himself an emperor of the Qin Dynasty was Qin Shi Huang. The word ‘’emperor’’ has now been used for many thousands of years. His Dynasty was short lived and brutal, but gained many accomplishments. His reign lasted from 221 B.C to 210 B.C. From the way he treated his people to the way he ruled his country, his reign had an everlasting effect on Chinese history.
Gaozu, the founder of the Han dynasty was the first low-ranked official to found a dynasty in imperial China. In 209BC, Gaozu spearheaded the rebellion against the tyrannical practices of the Qin dynasty. The changes enacted by the Han’s first emperor are central to understanding the political rule and authority in Han China due to the fact that the rulers that succeeded him follow suit in a majority of his policies. Throughout
Between 100 CE and 300 CE, the Han Dynasty had set important cultural foundations, such as Confucianism, constant, which lasted even after the rule of the Dynasty due to literature. The cultural changes led to a period of peace and economic prosperity; however, the political changes, such as unequal control of land between the rich and poor, had resulted in the Empire’s collapse by 220 CE, and it led to the Three Kingdoms Period (ends in 280 CE). The interior government was corrupt because of the civil service exams and the outer court system. Wealthy people had taken advantage of their power in order to get power. The court systems and the elite class became more focused on the luxuries of ruling rather than the duties of ruling. Teachings
The scholar gentry became such a dominant force in Chinese politics and society because they held a high status and prominent role. Those who were able to pass the difficult exams and earn position in high offices were treated with reverence and achieved special social status. They were also granted access to refined pleasures the elite could enjoy and had a great influence in the revival of Confucian ideas and values. 7. In what ways did relations between Chinese and Nomadic peoples to the North shape Chinese dynasties?
The Lasting Effects of the Tang and Song Dynasties During the Post Classical Era, the Tang and Song Dynasties, which arose in China, had lasting effects throughout World History. These dynasties accomplished this goal through success in political, social, and economic aspects of their societies. After the fall of the Sui Dynasty in 618 C.E., two influential empires arose in China, the Tang and Song.
The early Ming Dynasty was a period of cultural restoration and expansion. Under a series of strong rulers, China extended its rule into Mongolia and Central Asia. The Ming even briefly conquered Vietnam, which after a thousand years of Chinese rule had reclaimed its independence following the collapse of the Tang dynasty in the tenth century”(Duiker 336) .The Ming dynasty also known as the Empire of the Great Ming was described as of the greatest and famous eras that bought stability in human history. Emperor Hongwu born Zhu Yuanzhang (1368 -1398) was the founder and first emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China despite his lowly birth as the son of a hired laborer from one of the poorest parts of China”(Menzies 45). In the middle of the 14th century, with famine, plagues, and peasant revolts sweeping across China, Zhu Yuanzhang rose to command the force
Ancient China was a highly developed civilization whose many dynasties each had some kind of significant development, let it be in trade, invention, art, religion, government, or architecture. Two dynasties in particular, however, marked the Golden Age of Chinese history. This period is known for its large economic revolution. The two dynasties were called the Tang & Song Dynasty. The Tang & Song Dynasties were experiencing a Golden Age due to the fact that they had a fair system in granting government positions, brought highly advanced inventions to the world, and had very intricate architecture.
Confucianism had a vital role in how the Han was able to maintain political authority for four centuries. Although the early Han rulers adopted from the Qin the harsh enforcement of law and consequences, the reign of the Han Dynasty was moral and practical. Lu Jia wrote about how the Qin failed to rule humanely placing fear of the law in those under rule. Lu Jia compared the Han to the Qin writing, “One who is rich in virtue has far-flung influence; one who is ample in brute strength may be merely overbearing,” and in the Xinyu he blames the absence of disorder on human and righteous rule. The people of China grew weary of tyranny and rebellion struck the region resulting in the Shi Huangdi dying with China in a period of warring states and his successors giving in to Han rule.
The Chinese development of technological advances, allowed the era of the Tang, and the Song dynasty to bring about a social, political, and urban change. The Chinese found new techniques in Agriculture and farming rice. This allowed for more growth and spreading of population in the regions. As the population grew, people were interest in new jobs and careers in the markets. So, they sought out jobs such as shop sellers, blacksmiths, metallurgy, fishing, and government work. The developmental jobs and task created allowed for income and market economy to expand for china. They went further as to trade on land or sea throughout the eastern hemisphere. To travel they needed a ship or a boat to trade long distantly over sea. The increase production of trade allowed for China to make a social change.
During the Warring States Period Ancient China, Ying Zheng was born (259 BCE) to King Zhuangxiang and Queen Dowager Zhou. During this time, 7 major states of China were fighting for dominance over the country. It lasted from 475-221 BCE (which was about 254 years). At thirteen years old, Ying Zheng’s father died and he ascended to the throne of China to become king. He had to rule with a regent for a period of time, as he was too young to lead on his own, but once he took the throne to himself, it became his main goal as a king to unify China. He eventually accomplished this in 221 BCE (at age 40). To symbolize his accomplishment, Ying Zheng changed his name to Qin Shi Huang and gave himself the title of emperor. This started the Qin Dynasty.
The Rule of Heaven While many cultures in the Neolithic Age developed in the Middle East such as Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley since 8000 B.C., the Chinese civilization evolved rapidly in under the Shang and Zhou dynasties. As any civilization in that period, providing safety and economic wealth were the main duties for any ruler; however, the Chinese early political system was little different than other civilizations. For instance, in Egypt, the pharaoh was viewed as a living God and his dynasty should rule until it is unable to. On the other hand, the Chinese believed in the Mandate of Heaven, a philosophical idea or a belief that heaven chooses the emperors to rule based on their ability to govern fairly and if they do not fulfill their obligations then they lose the Mandate and the right to be