The middle ages of Europe saw a resurgence of political reorganization mostly as a result of large religious bodies asserting governing forces where secular powers already existed. This clash of authoritative bodies had a variety of outcomes depending on who and when the confrontation took place. While the relationship of Church and state in Byzantium favored patriarchal power over the Church, in the West, efforts to consolidate secular and religious power led to a conflict between the two sides that could not be solved for several hundred years. In Byzantium, secular power held control of the Church. Upon taking the Byzantium throne, Emperor Isaac I Comnenus began a period of great change for the empire.
This resulted in wars, persecutions, and the counter reformation. However, this was just the popular opinions of the people. In reality, the inquisition was the Catholic Church searching for heretics, belief or opinion contrary to orthodox religious doctrine, and giving them a fair trial and was then judged. The reformation was the split between the monarchy and the Catholic Church. The cause of the inquisition was to maintain the Catholic ideals and replace the medieval inquisition.
Around 1000 to 1300, much of the negative aspects of the Dark Age began to deplete, “the economy of Europe developed and prospered. Available farmland tripled...bringing up the population” (Doc 2). Life began to turn around for the medieval society, their economy began its path to restoration and the advancements of farming led to larger populations. Farming communities were now more efficient thanks to the “Technological improvements like the heavy plow...” (Doc 2). In addition to the increase in population and farming, trade began to make it’s return as well.
New England emerged as the leading manufacturing center as a result of the abundant waterpower the region held for driving new machinery and seaports for shipping goods. The decline of maritime and industry made capital available for manufacturing and the decrease of farming in the region brought ready labor supply. As the factory system expanded, it encouraged the growth of financial businesses such as banking and insurance. Transportation including roads and canals such as Pennsylvania 's Lancaster Turnpike and the Erie Canal stimulated economic growth. Another factor that impacted the region was Eli Whitney 's brilliant mechanical invention of interchangeable parts that became the basis for mass production methods in the new rising factories that were sprouting and
The thought and work of Martin Luther was part of this religious movement called the Protestant Reformation, which ended with ecclesiastical, religious and political supremacy of the Church of Rome creating European Protestant churches of different denominations. The main difference between the Catholic Church was that Luther was convincing that salvation is trough justification by faith. Although the Reformation was not essentially a religious movement, it resulted in significant changes in almost all aspects of social, economic and political life, with a major impact on the history of the Western world. Luther's ideology caused several differences. The 95 Theses and his criticism of the church generated conflicts in the church world.
Overall, during the transportation revolution, construction of turnpikes, roads, canals, and railroads led to the market economy expansion, an increased population in America and alternations of the physical landscape of America. As American factories and farms started to produce more goods businessmen and legislators began to create a faster and cheaper way to get goods distributed to consumers. Around 1820, Americans began to build canals and steamboats, railroad, and extend roads linking the Atlantic Coast with new states in the Trans Appalachian west. Canals and Steamboats shrunk the distance of carrying goods from one place to another and could haul the most cargo for transportation. A well-known waterway called the Erie Canal connected the Great Lakes region to the Atlantic Ocean and cost 7 million dollars.
The basis of his work is the idea or belief that Anglo-Saxons were a superior race and were destined to rule over other races. Horsman traced the origin of Anglo-Saxonism back to mid-sixteenth century England. He begins by noting that the idea of Anglo-Saxon superiority first gained momentum during the English Reformation. The justification of Henry VIII 's break with Rome had developed the idea of a pure English church that was run entirely by the people. This idea of throwing away papal authority and the corrupt Catholic Church to return England back to the people was well received and wide spread.
In the years following the Civil War, America saw a boom in immigration that helped to shape its future as well its major cities. This increase in immigration coincided with the reconstruction of the south, as America began to undergo a shift from a more rural agrarian society to a more industrial based economy. This economic shift lead to large cities forming in and around centers of industry and manufacturing. This would eventually lead to the era known as the industrial revolution. In the time leading up to the industrial revolution in America, most of the populace grew up in towns that were connected by horse travel or waterways.
However, following the Civil War, a new economy was born in the United States, mainly relying on steam-powered manufacturing, the transcontinental railroad, the electric motor, and the practical application of chemistry. Unlike the pre-Civil War economy and business, this new one was dependent on raw materials from around the world and it sold goods not only in Europe, but all around the world. After the Civil War, business organization also expanded in size and scale. As far as industrial changes go, the period after the reconstruction era was affected in that it used more modern methods to make goods that could be sold faster and more efficiently, with the new railroad system. By the beginning of the 20th century, the nation’s industry would be mainly fueled by banking, manufacturing, meat packing, oil refining, railroads, and steel, as opposed to the pre- Civil War era, in which many people were still farmers or factory
Dat Chenh Prof. McNee History 313 03/13/2017 The Free Nation Industrialization. An inevitable event which took place during the late 19th and early 20th century also known as the second industrial revolution; marks an important turning point for life inside the United States. The most important contribution to the revolution was steel. With growth in production along with the significantly lower cost compared to iron, steel was the answered to new inventions in construction such as skyscrapers and in transportation such as trains and railroads. While the rise of industry brings many jobs and wealth to American soil, it also brings changes to working class Americans.