The ventral ramus is the most prominent and most important branch and it supplies the structures ventral to the neural canal. Second branch is the sinuvertebral nerve is a small branch arising from the ventral ramus traverses medially over the posterior aspect of the disc, vertebral body and posterior longitudinal ligament and supplies these structures. Third branch, the dorsal ramus courses dorsally and pierces the intertransverse ligament near the pars interarticularis and divides into 3 branches which supply the structures dorsal to the neural canal. The lateral and intermediate branches supply the posterior musculature and skin while the medial branch divides into 3 branches and supplies the facet joints at and the adjacent
Different types of nerve fibres interface with the interneurons and second order neurons in the grey matter laminae of the spinal cord. The laminae is divided into a number of lamina, each providing a specific type of transmission between the nerve fibres and the interneurons/second order neurons. The outermost lamina is where A-delta fibres and C fibres synapse with second order neurons that transmit to the thalamus and then on to the somatosensory cortex and cingulate cortex in the brain, where the perception of the pain experience is processed. In some layers of lamina, A-delta, A-beta and C fibres synapse with interneurons and second order neurons that may synapse with neurons in other lamina. The innermost lamina contain second order neurons that transmit to the locus coeruleus, hypothalamus and amygdala in the brain.
from the primary auditory cortex to the pontine nuclei which is located inside the pons to the cerebellar cortex through the middle cerebellar peduncle. 2. from the medial geniculate body which shows communication with the auditory cortex to the vermis of the cerebellum through the dorsolateral pontine nuclei. Not all auditory pathways go through the cerebellum for example: the pathways that start from the cochlear nucleus to the inferior colliculus. There are data of the experiments that was conducted on animals shows that cerebellum acts as a collaborator in the auditory processing and in cognition, which opens more fields for research. Other experiments done on humans showed that the cerebellum acts as intensifier of neural responses coordinating direction and auditory pathway, also it suggests that the cerebellum cooperate in the processing of the non-verbal stimuli and it would also work as back up expanding its capacity to store the hearing analyzer.
Multiple sclerosis occurs when damage is brought about to the myelin in the central nervous system (CNS), and to the nerve fibers themselves. What causes this illness or disorder is still not known, but the body response to this by initiating an immune-mediated unwanted response to the stimuli that possibly comes from the environment. This unwanted response interferes with the bodies transmission of nerve signals between the brain and spinal cord and other parts of the body (National Multiple Sclerosis Society, n.d., para. 2). The questions that a nurse would ask a patient with multiple sclerosis are going to be questions about reports of muscle weakness, tingling sensation in the limbs, and poor
According Caminiti, the posterior (back) portion of the corpus callosum is called the splenium; the anterior (front) is called the genu (or "knee"); between the two is the truncus, or "body", of the corpus callosum. The part between the body and the splenium is often markedly narrowed and thus referred to as the "isthmus". The rostrum is the part of the corpus callosum that projects posteriorly and inferiorly from the anteriormost genu, as can be seen on the sagittal image of the brain displayed on the right. The rostrum is so named for its resemblance to a bird's
It’s contributes to the multiple regions of the skull: anterior cranial fossa, middle cranial fossa, pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal roof, , orbit, lateral wall of the cranial vault and roof and lateral wall of the nasal cavity, It’s articulates with the following bones: The ethmoid bone, the frontal bone, the zygomatic bones, the parietal bones, the temporal bones, the palatine bones, occipital bone and the vomer (Liebgott, 2011). It is consist from four main part : and three paired processes—greater wings, lesser wings and pterygoid processes (Tandon, 2009) 3.1.2 body of sphenoid bone• Its reprecent the central part and contains two sphenoidal air sinuses, It has multiple surfaces: Superior surface—bears a sulcus chiasmaticus and Dorsum sellae with two posterior clinoid processes lie posteriorly Inferior surface—has the rostrum, Two lateral surfaces—Each has a carotid sulcus for internal corotid artery. Anterior surface—presents sphenoidal crest in midline. On either side are openings of sphenoidal air sinuses and sphenoidal concha. Posterior surface fuses with basilar part of occipital bone by 25th year .
he later called the Primary Respiratory Mechanism (PRM). In 1900, G.Sutherland then found the school of Cranial Osteopathy (Brooks, 2000). Sutherland then began to study in specific the bony articulations of the skull which he described as the “cranial bowl”, offering the premise that Articular mobility at the cranial base was attributed to the cartilaginous origin of the bones. The “interossous membrane” unites the cranial bones and the sacrum; therefore he believed that if any part of the system moved, all parts would synchronously move because of the fibrous link between the two. The Primary Respiratory mechanism comprises of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, intracranial and intraspinal membranes, cranial bones, spinal cord and sacrum.
CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1 Background Carpal tunnel syndrome is the entrapment of median nerve at the wrist. The median nerve originates from the brachial plexus at level of C5 to T1. It passes down through the midline of the arm in front of the elbow joint supplying muscles of the forearm continuing to the hand supplying the front of the thumb, the two first fingers and the lateral half of the third finger (Elsevier 2001). The symptoms in carpal tunnel syndrome include numbness, tingling, burning sensation, loss of grip strength and pain. Symptoms are more severe at night provoked by repetitive vigorous activity and prolonged wrist positioning (Ablove & Ablove 2009).
In gustatory system, the taste receptors cell are found in taste buds. Taste bud lies throughout the oval cavity, laryngeal epiglottis, in pharynx and the opening of eosophagus. The taste buds are group of 30-100 individual elongated cells called “neuroepithelial”, which are embedded in papillae. The little
2014 Drogheda Institute of Further Education Rebecca McCormack CARE SKILLS 5N0758 Assignment Two Multiple Sclerosis “Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease, where the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a wide range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems between attacks, symptoms may disappear completely; however, permanent neurological problems often occur, especially as the disease advances.” - Wikipedia, 2014 People with MS can have neurological symptoms or signs; loss of sensitivity or changes in sensation such as tingling, pins and needles or numbness, muscle weakness, very pronounced