The nervous system is the body's decision and communication center. The central nervous system (CNS) is made of the brain and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are made of nerves. The brain is made of three main parts which are the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum.
Spinal Stenosis- Overview- Spinal Stenosis is a condition in which there is narrowing of the spinal canal. This is commonly seen in the lumbar and cervical spine. Lumbar spine stenosis is often accompanied by nerve impingement. It includes central as well as lateral recess stenosis.
The diencephalon, alongside the cerebrum make up the two major divisions of the forebrain. The main structures of the diencephalon include the hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus (including the pineal gland), and also the subthalamus. Moreover, located within the diencephalon is found the third ventricle, which is one of the four brain ventricles or cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The function of the diencephalon is to relay sensory information between brain regions and control many autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system.
Different types of nerve fibres interface with the interneurons and second order neurons in the grey matter laminae of the spinal cord. The laminae is divided into a number of lamina, each providing a specific type of transmission between the nerve fibres and the interneurons/second order neurons. The outermost lamina is where A-delta fibres and C fibres synapse with second order neurons that transmit to the thalamus and then on to the somatosensory cortex and cingulate cortex in the brain, where the perception of the pain experience is processed. In some layers of lamina, A-delta, A-beta and C fibres synapse with interneurons and second order neurons that may synapse with neurons in other lamina. The innermost lamina contain second order neurons that transmit to the locus coeruleus, hypothalamus and amygdala in the brain.
TAQ 1: a) b) The mammalian nervous system is split into two. The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord, which coordinates and controls the movement and activities of the body and the peripheral nervous system, made up of the somatic and autonomic system, which forms the connections between the organs and the central nervous system. The brain and the spinal cord work together to aid the coordination of the body.
Case Study of Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome Introduction This case study is about Ehlers – Danlos Syndrome. Ehlers – Danlos Syndrome is a condition that cause connective tissue that cannot support the skin and it also affect the sign and symptoms of ehlers - Danlos syndrome. The person who has this type of condition (Ehlers - Danlos syndrome) there is a chance that the person can have flexible joints, stretchy, fragile skin which can lead an issue of a wound because the skin cannot heal a wound.
This cell column is called the ciliospinal center of Budge. Once the fibers exit the spinal cord, they travel through the stellate ganglion, the inferior cervical ganglion, and the middle cervical ganglion to synapse in the superior cervical ganglion at the carotid artery bifurcation. From the bifurcation the fibers travel with the internal carotid artery, and then enter the cavernous sinus. From the cavernous sinus they travel along the abducens nerve. The fibers enter the orbit through the superior orbital fissure, and pass through the ciliary ganglion, without synapsing.
The posterior lobe is then responsible for storing the hormones made by the neurons of the hypothalamus. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system is the specific way the hypothalamus communicates with the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. This portal system consists of blood vessels that carry hormones of the hypothalamus to the anterior lobe. The anterior lobe then responds by making its own hormones. The anterior lobe hormones can go and control other glands.
The brain is the control centre for the nervous system The nervous system is split into two; -central nervous system; *brain *spinal cord -peripheral nervous system; *sensory division- informs the central nervous system of outer changes *somatic division- sends instructions of movement to different muscles *autonomic division- controls the running of inner organs -autonomic nervous system -somatic nervous system
The medulla oblongata is located between the pons and spinal cord. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. The midbrain is involved in functions such as vision, hearing, eye movement, and body movement. The pons are involved in motor control and sensory analysis. For example, information from the ear first enters the brain in the pons.
The PNS contains somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls the function of internal organs like your heart, stomach, cardiac muscle, and your glands. The autonomic nervous system has an effect on the organs, muscles, and glands are all done voluntary. The autonomic nervous system can change the body temperture, send extra blood to a particular area, slow your heartbeat, and pull the stomach secretion. The somatic nervous system is made up of sensory organs and nerves that connects to the skin, also that connects to all the skeleton muscles.
(10 points) 1. Referred pain to the shoulder and low back: the lesion site could be due to diaphragmatic irritation.6 The diaphragm is innervated by the phrenic nerve C3, C4, and C5, therefore referred pain could present in the corresponding dermatomes, such as shoulder pain would come from C4 and