The Four Stages Of Modernization Theory

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Introduction
What are modernisation theories?
Wilbert E. Moore defines modernization as ‘total transition of traditional society or pre-modern society into the types of technology and associated social organization that characterize the advanced, economically prosperous and relatively politically stable states of the Western world”. Modernization theory is therefore a description and explanation or a conceptual framework that articulated a common set of assumptions about the nature of developed societies and their ability to transform a world perceived as both materially and culturally deficient. The theory explains how the society changes from a traditional society to a modern form, by striving towards a modern society of such as Europe and
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For instance; Rostow () describes the various linear stages modernization i.e. Traditional, Pre-condition to take off, take off, drive to maturity and age of mass consumption. These stages show the progressive growth of societies from simple traditionalistic values, beliefs and attitudes, to modern technological advancements. It is characterized by minimal rates of population growth, social mobility, little manufacturing processes, limited modern science and individuals seek spiritual consents to comprehend the physical world (Preston, 1996). At the age of mass consumption stage, societies experience massive advancement in the industrial systems, increased production and consumption of consumer goods and reduced population growth. At the final stage, individuals consume more than they need, since production levels are on the higher end. The traditional modes of production are fully substituted by modern skills and more people have white-collar…show more content…
There is need to shun the traditional subsistence farming where production was just for one’s own consumption. Surplus production should be encouraged, where one can produce products enough to sustain themselves and have a surplus that can be taken to the market for sell. This acts as a food security mechanism as well as an economic empowerment mechanism. The producer of the products will have enough for their own consumption and the sell the surplus, hence earn revenue that can be used in other forms of investment or ploughed back to farm production hence resulting into an increased profit in the subsequent production. Surplus production also encourages specialization. This is where other people in the economy can concentrate in other activities that facilitate development since their food matters are catered for by those who produce in surplus. This enables development in all sectors, unlike everyone engaging in subsistence production to sustain their needs hence causing economic stagnation in other sectors. For example in the African traditional societies (specifically in Kenya), communities used to produce food for their own consumption or for barter trade for other items like food or animals. This made every household engage in farming hence stagnating other important sectors of development. However Kenya has now transformed in development and given regions are known for
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