They portrayed poverty, survival, hunger, alienation and cultural conflicts in their novels. Many of the American writers expressed disillusionment following the World War. The stories and novels of F.R.Scott Fitzgerald capture the mood of the 1920s, and John Dos Passes wrote about the war. Hemingway became notable for The Sun Also Raises and A Farwell to Arms. According to Richard Chase, The American novel was born out of cultural contradiction.
The characteristics of cultural imperialism can be observed not only in the global scale, but also countywide among different groups of people in the same society. Cultural imperialism in the borders of one country involves disseminating the values of the authority and forcing others to leave their personal identities, cultural values to obey the mainstream ideas. As Iris Young (2004) mentions in his article “Five Faces of Oppression”, the individuals who are persecuted by social colonialism are both evaluated by stereotypes and made to feel imperceptible. The stereotypes characterize what they can and can 't be. In the meantime, these stereotypes turn individuals into a mass of others who lack separate personalities (p.4).
Ngugi works for the change in society that kind of society which promotes unequal social order. Ngugi’s writing has been the questioning of the painful experience of colonialism. His novel Petals of Blood was published in 1977 and his second text in Gikuyu was Matigari published in 1987. Theme of land, education, betrayal and proletarian consciousness are highlighted in Petals of Blood and Matigari. Ngugi depicts
Coetzee along with many South African writers like Nadine Gordimer, Alan Paton played an instrumental role in bringing apartheid to global attention. Coetzee’s literary career has grown up in South Africa under the apartheid regime. As such it is obvious to have presence of references in his works to the system of racial segregation and its consequences on the victims. Racial structure of his country provided Coetzee much raw material for his writing. He has used his countries ‘apartheid system’ to project the harshness of human conditions.
2. THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK Postcolonial criticism helps us effectively to see connections among all the domains of experience such as psychological, social, ideological, political, aesthetic, and intellectual in ways that show us how these categories are attached to our experience of life and our world. Furthermore, postcolonial criticism provides us framework for investigating the comparisons among all critical theories such as feminism; Marxism; gay, lesbian, and queer theories; and African American theory, that deal with human oppression (Tyson, 2006, p. 417). Guerin et al. (2005, p. 303) state Postcolonial criticism denotes to a historical stage undergone by Third World countries after the decline of colonialism.
South Africa’s past represented in 1980 and 2005. Gavin Hood and Athol Fugard try in each of their versions of Tsosti to explain and understand South Africa during different times. Fugard writes his novel during Apartheid and so the novel tries to grabble with Apartheid and its effect on black people during those times. However Hood focuses his film adaption on the after effects of Apartheid like the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Both the novel and the film express representations of violence and in this essay it will be discussed the differences in which they portray these violence’s.
As a writer, she has represented many genres such as poetry, short fictions, novels and essays. The experience of the immigrants in the United States forms the core of her fiction. Divakaruni stresses upon the concept of double consciousness in One Amazing Thing. The term, “Double Consciousness” was first used by W.E.B. DuBois in his book, The Soul of Black Folk.
Disgrace The concepts of power, change, sex and race, are all ideologies described and lived in Disgrace by J.M Coetzee. In the case of the author 's home country, South Africa, history has shown a great misuse of power by a white society believing to be superior than blacks. Racial segregation and white supremacy had become central aspects in South Africa. In a time of post apartheid, one of the darkest times of the nation, David Lurie, the main character in Disgrace is faced with some intense and terrifying experiences which make him change just as South Africa did. J.M Coetzee’s work describes his countries disgrace through David Lurie’s disgrace, written in present tense complimenting a racial issue examined but yet to be resolved.
A postcolonial study usually discusses about the binary opposition between the colonized and colonizer, oppressed and oppressor, subjugated and subjugator. Using a postcolonial criticism, one can easily recognizes the ideas of polarization in literary texts. Ernest Hemingway’s Indian Camp and John Henrik Clarke’s The Boy Who Painted Christ Black are two example of literary works that show the polarization. The stories portray a vivid view on colonialism. Both of the stories tell about the oppression from the White toward the Other in a postcolonial context.
The Cultural Conflict: An Analysis of Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies Manoj Kumar (Research Scholar, Department of English and Modern European Languages, University of Allahabad) Email- firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract The present paper tries to analyze cultural and social theme that we face in the fiction of Jhumpa Lahiri, one of the most dazzling authors of diaspora. The topic of culture is always a matter of interest especially when it has to do with an alien setting. Lahiri’s characters represent different social walks of life and always find themselves caught in two different worlds, one that they have left behind and other in which they try to adjust and thus face a cultural conflict. This cross cultural conflict is always present is most of her stories. The immigrants especially in America easily become accustomed to the tradition and culture and find it suitable to settle there but the craving for their