Data hiding is the art of hiding data for various purposes such as; to maintain private data, secure confidential data and so on. There are lots of techniques used for data hiding; Steganography and Watermarking; Steganography is an ancient well-known technology which has many applications even in today’s modern society. It is the art and science of hiding a secret message within a cover media in such way that only intended recipient have knowledge about secret message and the extraction of it at its destination. Cover media can be image, audio, video, text and network. It is concerned with sending a secret message while hiding its existence.
This model is based on assigning security labels called security clearances to all object and users according to the specified classification. Thus, it enables a user read the objects which have the same label or smaller. For example, if considering the following classification of security levels: Unclassified – Confidential – Secret – Top Secret (each level dominates the previous), the user possessing a label “Secret” is not able to access the information labeled as “Top Secret” . The information flow from dominating level to lower level is regulated by the “Read down” and “Write up” principles. The integrity of information is also regulated by the two principles “Read up” and “Write down”
The River Valley Civilizations of ancient China, Egypt and Mesopotamia were crucial contributions to future civilizations. They invented new ways of writing, laws to help keep civilization and society just and controlled and developed trade routes to help spread cultural diffusion. In documents 1 & 4, they talk about the two different types of writing, cuneiform and hieroglyphics. Cuneiform was the world’s first written language, created over 5,000 years ago by Sumerians. It was used to keep track of business dealings because they traded with far way civilizations.
This attempt was the earliest of Romans to create a Code of Law and is also the earliest (surviving) piece of literature coming from the Romans. That time Roman Empire was struggling for legal and social protection between the privileged, the rich and elite and plebeians. For this reason a commission was appointed to draft a code of law which would be binding on both parties and which the magistrates would have to enforce impartially. Twelve tables introduced the system of systematic and procedural study of law, dividing the
What could be more beautiful and appealing to the eyes than a combination of arts and decorations used to write a couple of words or deliver a certain message? The branch of art which deals with written words in a certain beautiful manner is called Calligraphy. The word calligraphy is derived from the Greek word “kaligraphia”, which is a combination of two words that mean “fair and beautiful” and “to write”. Calligraphy was first attempted by The Sumerians, around 7,000 to 8,000 years back, who were one of the first people to have ever lived on this Earth. They were located in East Asia, which is now known as Modern Iraq.
Cryptography is a technique or method to secure personal data from unauthorized user. In cryptography two types of operation are performed. (i) Encryption and (ii) Decryption. To encrypt and decrypt data a secret key is used. After encryption original data is converted into another format known as cyphertext, which is not easy to understand.
Archeologists made the perilous journeys of Silk Road traders and began to uncover ancient manuscripts, all the while keeping their own record that very closely paralleled those which they discovered. Sir Aurel Stein, a foremost archeologist in the area, saw the Silk Road as a "… special meeting ground of Chinese civilization, introduced by trade and political penetration,
“Censorship is the tool of those who have the need to hide actualities from themselves and from others. Their fear is only their inability to face what is real, and I can’t vent any anger against them, I only feel this appalling sadness. Somewhere, in their upbringing, they were shielded against the total facts of our existence. They were only taught to look one way when many ways exist” (Flood). Censorship is the suppression or prohibition of any parts of books, films, news, that are considered obscene, politically acceptable, or a threat in security.
Medieval religious illuminated manuscripts have used graphics extensively. Among these books are the Gospel books of Insular art, created in the monasteries of the British Isles. Calligraphy. Many believe that calligraphy adds a mystical dimension to a writing. Such mysticism appears to be consistent with the feeling that a religious text tries to convey.
Because of vulnerability of system allow to unauthorized person to access the confidential information or data . Because of unauthorized access the confidentiality of information get break. So, biometrics is a good technique to maintain the security of the confidential data. Biometrics refers to the physical and behavioral characteristics of the human. Such as face recognition, voice, gait, finger print, palm
a) Not true, the message can also be decrypted with the Public Key b) A so called “one way function with back door” is applied for the encryption c) The Public Key contains a special function which is used to encrypt the message and which can only be reversed by the appropriate Private Key d) The encrypted message contains the function for decryption which identifies the Private Key Answer:b 9. What is the main drawback of the symmetric Encryption? a) More complex and therefore more time-consuming calculations b) Problem of the secure transmission of the Secret Key c) Less secure encryption function d) Isn’t used any more Answer:b 10. What is the purpose a key during encrypt a message? a) The key indicates which function is used for encryption.
Secret code is applied to the message and hashed and is sent to the receiver 6. Secret code is applied to the message and hashed and this hashed message is encrypted and sent to the receiver. It is used in digital signatures the hash is encrypted using sender’s private key and then encrypted using public key and sent to the receiver and the receiver decrypts the message using the private key. It is used in password storage A good system does not store the plaintext equivalent but store something else which include some randomness .so now if we use hash and because of its onewayness it is impossible to get back the password. If we use pure hash in the password and encrypt it, it can be broken easily by exhaustive search so that is why we have add some randomness to the password before the hash function is applied.
3. Don’t allow any program remember (such as internet explorer) your passwords. It is risky. Hackers could steal such passwords without your knowledge. You should rather install a reputable password manager to remember your passwords.
At least one character should be a Digit. 4. Symbols and Non alphabetic characters. Reversible Encryption: This is the setting present, when selected it allows the operating system to store the password using reversible encryption which helps to prevent the theft of the password and access to the hackers. Lockout Policy: This is the policy created by Windows to prevent the hackers from hacking the computer system.
4.7.5 Data Preservation and Isolation from the Network. The main purpose of a digital forensic report is to keep the data integrity, avoiding any type of data alteration, in order to present valid evidences, for instance in a court. The use of not valid software to check the stored information in a mobile phone can alter these information. The action of receive new data can alter the information stored, for instance an automatic firmware update, or remote device control with the risks involved. Therefore, it is extremelly important have the device completely isolated from the network.