The English language first started as dialects spoken by the Angles and Saxons in the 5th and 6th centuries, and later on mixed together until there was an Angelo-Saxon, which also is known as Old English. Old English actually consists of a pinch of Scandinavian from Viking settlers. In 1066 when the French-speaking Normans became the ruling class in the country after beating the English at the battle of Hastings, French words were gradually added to the vocabulary which mainly had to do with law, dress, art, food, and politics. As mentioned, the English language were only spoken by about 6 million people in 1558, and by time, went from being a common language to be a global language spoken by about 1,8 billion people in the world. So, how is it possible that a language spoken by a few millions, suddenly becomes the most important language in the world?
The vocabulary found in Central English was passed through three stages: 1 - Old English 2 - French 3 - Latin. The main distinction between early English and late modern is vocabulary because of the production of many new vocabularies because of: 1: The Industrial Revolution and the rise of the technological society 2: The rise of the British Empire. 3-gammer: Old English grammar is an artificial language used by name, conscience, character and action and is similar to modern German grammar. Modern and intermediate English grammar is analytical and very close to each
According to the Annals, the Viking invasion seemed to occur almost suddenly at the point of the Rechru raid in 795 without any form of warning to announce their oncoming presence. They then continue to record an increasing number of raids that happened throughout the early half of the 9th century where the Vikings attacked monastery complexes and other centres of wealth such as fortified dwellings (crannógs). They also record a large number of kidnappings that were perpetrated during the raids. The most notable of these was the 831 attack on North Louth, where their King was taken for ransom. This pattern continues up until 841 when the Vikings were recorded to have taken up their first permanent settlement in Dublin.
This includes the reduction (and eventual elimination) of most grammatical cases, and the simplification of noun, adjective and verb inflection. Middle English also saw a mass adoption of Norman French vocabulary, especially in areas such as politics, law, the arts, religion and other courtly language. Everyday English vocabulary remained mostly Germanic, with Old Norse influence becoming apparent. Anglo-Norman French became the language of the kings and nobility of England for more than 300 years (Henry IV, who came to the English throne in 1399, was the first monarch since before the Conquest to have English as his mother tongue). While Anglo-Norman was the verbal language of the court, administration and culture, though, Latin was mostly used for written language, especially by the Church and in official
“The Essay Early Modern English,” traces the development of the English language. It was in the wake of French and Arabs that lead to the development of English language, on and around 1500. The Renaissance, which previously took place in Italy, was crossing the borders over to England. After the renaissance, the fate of English as a nation and as a language was brightening. It was during the reformation, that English received the stock of words after translation of the Bible.
For centuries, English was not the official language in England. Its history with the Normans and the long period of French Kings' royalty in the country never helped the development of their own language. Through the centuries, many English thinkers promoted the importance of the English over the prestigious French and Latin, to make it become their National language, and a real part of their culture. How did the English language develop in England, and how did it become the main official language? Moreover, what are the processes of standardisation from the 12th century until the prescriptivist movement of the 18th century?
The Statutes of Kilkenny are an example of the various attempts of the English to ‘curb the rapid geaelicisation of the Anglo-Norman settlers, and proscribing the Irish language and Irish customs’ (Hickey, 2007: 419). But these efforts had no effect, since during the Anglo-Norman invasions and colonizations of the 12th and 13th centuries, some shift to French and English occurred but in the end a predominantly Irish-speaking Ireland arose (Ó Laoire, 2007: 164). It seemed that the invaders adopted the language of the country. However, this does not mean that English did not influence Irish in following the Anglo-Norman invasion. On the contrary, it made its presence strongly felt in translation.
Johnson was the first English lexicographer to use citations in this way, a method that greatly influenced the style of future dictionaries. He had scoured books stretching back to the 1500s, often quoting from those thought to be 'great works ' such as Milton or Shakespeare.” (The British Library, Literary quotations). In the eighteenth century, the language changed due to the time of the empire. Because of the people who came from foreign countries to England for commercial trading purposes, the language was affected from both foreign countries and England. “Johnson argued that as a country grows, so does the language.” (Seargeant and Swann, 2012, p.
But before answering these question I will talk about the history of the English language. The history of the English language can be separated basically in three periods: FIRST Old English: Between 450 and 1150 a. C. English 's main characteristic was the fact of being a flexile language, like Latin, Greek and many other Indo-European languages. This period may be considered as a period of formation and growth of English as a new language spoken in Great Britain. It was born out of the conjunction of several dialects of the Germanic tribes that invaded the territory after the fall of the Roman Empire, such as the Saxon, the Anglian, the Frisio and the Juto, specially from the first one. It also had the influence of other languages such as Celtic, Latin and Scandinavian.
All these will be shown briefly in the introduction, and spoken about with great detail later on. The English language first showed signs of development in the 5th century. But back then it was a West Germanic language, sadly there is no surviving text from that time period. Everything before the 7th century was lost. The oldest surviving text of the Old English literature is a poem called “Cædmon's Hymn”.