Middle English Language, like other important samples of human behavior, slowly but continuously expands from older forms into newer ones. Even more drastic changes were brought by the invasion and conquest of England by the Normans from northwestern France in 1066. Normans who were originally of Viking ancestry by the middle of the 11th century become Frenchified in language and culture. Their language is determined as Norman French – a dialect of Old French. The effects of the Norman Conquest were very deep in the field of language, so immense changes that brought a special name to the period of English after they begin to show themselves from 1100 to 1500 – Middle English.
What about the Great Vowel Shift? This paper aims to take a brief look at the history of the English language and how the Great Vowel Shift impacted the language. It will also give an over view of what the GVS is and how it affected the English language. It also reveals some possible theories on why it happened and the lasting effects it left behind. It is concluded that a learner of the English language needs to fully understand why there are so many words in the language and how they are
The Renaissance, which began in the 14th century at the end of the Medieval Period and continued until the 17th century in Europe, was a movement of “rebirth” of the classical Ancient Greek and Roman culture and a new interest in science. Through the Renaissance, Europe was able to develop in every field and produce a lot of great and influential people as well as many masterpieces. Renaissance also brought many new ideas which caused changes that built the foundations of revolutions such as the Reformation, which is a religious movement that rejected the Roman Catholic doctrine and practice and started the Protestant sects (Merriam Webster). The Renaissance encouraged people to increase their interest in learning and question their lives and the Church, which in turn triggered the advent of the Reformation that questioned the validity of the Roman Catholic Church. One of the main Renaissance thinking, ‘humanism’, which put emphasis on humans, influenced people’s perspectives about lives and the Catholic Church.
The influence of the English language on other languages and cultures has contributed to a change in languages’ terminology. There is an increase of Anglicisms and this growth can be seen in different disciplines, but also in everyday language. The introduction of Anglicisms is the result of cultural developments, political procedures and other reasons such as people’s everyday communication. It has to be stressed that language is in a constant state of evolution. New words are arriving into our daily vocabulary at a surprising rate and they transform every single day as a result of sociocultural evolution and anglicisms take part on this evolution.
William Caxton’s “ Morte D‘Arthur” was first published in 1485, making it a Middle English text. Many of the grammatical and lexical features of the Middle English vernacular are discernable in Caxton’s work. It becomes clear how many changes the English language had to go through to evolve into the Modern English we know today. Especially the preface of “Morte D’Arthur” is an excellent example of these changes. One of the most noticeable developments has taken place in spelling.
English language standardization is a standard form of written English which has been established in England, that standard is always evolving and as English has spread around the world, several different varieties of English now exist. It’s also stress that the stages of standardization need to be successive and may extend over , and that the process involved in the implementation of a standard English are ongoing as successive generation attempt to suppress the variability which is the inventible result of linguistic change . Samuel Johnson dictionary (1755) is named by the dictionary of Standard English which became a model and standard of English in America and England. The dictionaries before Johnson were just a list of synonyms defining hard word which borrowed from Latin or French. In the 17 century grammar books at this time presented the information which related to the spelling, definitions, origin of words and usage notes.
The vocabulary found in Central English was passed through three stages: 1 - Old English 2 - French 3 - Latin. The main distinction between early English and late modern is vocabulary because of the production of many new vocabularies because of: 1: The Industrial Revolution and the rise of the technological society 2: The rise of the British Empire. 3-gammer: Old English grammar is an artificial language used by name, conscience, character and action and is similar to modern German grammar. Modern and intermediate English grammar is analytical and very close to each
introduction Universal truth - the language does not remain unchanged. It changes, evolves according to definite laws. Changes in language - the internal laws of language development. There are external factors influencing the development of language - the geographical discoveries, war and conquest, migration, changes in the life of the country and society. To understand the current state of the language, its grammatical forms, phonetic structure, vocabulary, every phenomenon of the modern language should be considered as a specific result of a long historical development.
The renaissance was a time of many different improvements and changes to the era previous to it, the medieval ages, the renaissance re-introduced many different Roman and Greek traditional aspects, so much so that renaissance literally translates into “rebirth” in French. Other changes include social such as the rise of humanism and humanist beliefs, secularism, individualism, big changes in mathematical studies, sciences and all types of learning in general, the printing press invention, as well as religious changes, and the arts were also affected and changed with techniques such as chiaro-scuro, perspective, sfumato, and further more to be explained. The renaissance started in the end of the 14th century and ended in the 17th century. In
The answer to these questions and others needs volumes of studying the history of English language and its development. However, there were some major challenging stages in the history of English language, which were critical turning points in this history. The effects of other languages on English in previous ages and centuries is undeniable.