In 1922 the government issued a national diploma for nursing. Nursing professionalized rapidly in the late 19th century as larger hospitals set up nursing schools that attracted ambitious women from middle- and working-class backgrounds. In the early 1900s, the autonomous, nursing-controlled, Nightingale-era schools came to an end. Schools became controlled by hospitals, and formal "book learning" was discouraged in favor of clinical experience. Hospitals used student nurses as cheap labor.
The French Revolution of 1789-1799 aimed to spread Liberty, Equality and Brotherhood through France and through Europe. It wished to create a French Republic and it ultimately resulted in the overthrow and executions of the King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette. It failed, however, to secure voting rights for women. Despite this, participation of women in the Revolution was clear. However, the question remains - just how did women help the Revolution, and how important were their roles?
When speaking about the early beginnings of what society has dubbed as the feminist movement, a myriad of names are mentioned in this reflection towards equality. One in particular that helped shape the minds of those in Europe within the late eighteenth century is none other than Mary Wollstonecraft. Her early upbringing paired with a struggling early adulthood implored Wollstonecraft to make the argument that both men and women are born with the same brain, but with nurturing, men come out as being seen as smarter and more capable due to their advantages in this child rearing. This argument is highlighted in her piece A Vindication of the Rights of Woman where she spends time arguing the advantages men are given within society due to their upbringing as well as the issues with not educating women the same way men are during this time period. In Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Wollstonecraft concocts an argument on the misunderstanding of nature and nurture of men and women within early British society through her use of reason with literary elements such as rhetorical questions, metaphors and similes, and forceful verbs to explain why it is important that the community educates equally.
Ahead of Her Time Mary Wollstonecraft 's A Vindication of the Rights of Woman exhibits an effective utilization of talk through contentions defending the training of ladies in the eighteenth century. The verifiably conspicuous writer, Wollstonecraft, built up her expository piece in light of the ideas in England and France that encased the Enlightenment period. Drawing from other known works and social feelings, Wollstonecraft makes contentions that will effectively contact her target group. In Vindication, expository interests, for example, ethos, logos, and tenderness play upon the crowd. Mary Wollstonecraft wants a world in which teaching ladies will prompt liberation.
During the late nineteenth century, Britain saw a shift in importance in terms of women’s rights with a focus on suffrage. This shaped the early twentieth century where women began to take on a role in education by not only being able to attend university, but to also have a voice within school board elections and that in turn pioneered the idea of “the new woman”. Although women were not allowed to receive degrees and have full voting rights until later on in the twentieth century, many brave women spoke out and participated in discussions for a push in reaching more equality within the time period. One author who highlighted this idea was Bernard Shaw, a political activist and author of Mrs. Warren’s Profession which provided commentary on the endeavors of single women within society. In Bernard Shaw’s Mrs. Warren’s Profession, Shaw employs the use of rhetorical questions, hyperbole, and analogy in order to highlight the struggle and ridicule that Mrs. Warren has faced from Vivie and Frank because of her choice in profession in order to get ahead in society, whereas if she were a man, none of this would be a topic of concern.
In the early 19th century, there was a substantial growth in hospitals and related services run by Catholic religious orders and lay organisations. In the mid-19th century, the British government introduced the workhouse or poor law system, which provided infirmaries, dispensaries and medical officers to care for the very poor. However, standards were set intentionally low to prevent malingering. In 1899, a group of students at Trinity College Dublin formed “the Dublin University Social Service Society which raised funds from students to buy and manage a housing scheme.” (Darling, 1972). In the same year, Alexandra College in Dublin established the Alexandra Guild, an association of past students of the college.
Throughout the nineteenth century there were arguments about the proper sphere of women, and during this time only women obtained some limited legal and financial rights while still struggling for the social equality, and began to have access to some professions. The aim of universal suffrage, as mentioned in the first chapter of the study, was achieved in Britain in 1928, and in the twentieth century women generally had more independence. The two world wars had significant effect on perceptions of what women were capable of doing. In each world war women were encouraged to take work in the national interest. The fact that their ability to do ‘men’s work’ could no longer be denied.
They support an individualistic and liberal agenda, consider that the political demands of first and second wave feminism like enfranchisement, equal pay, sexual liberation etc. have been met and “feminism has…become irrelevant to the lives of young women today” (Vicki Coppock, p. 3). Rene Danfeld starts her book The New Victorians (1995) with the observation that “ for women of my generation, feminism is our birthright …. We know what it is to live without excessive confinement. We are the first generation to grow up expecting equal opportunity and equal education, as well as the freedom to express our sexuality” (p. 2) .
Accordingly, in the 19th century Christian colleges fashioned a cohort of exceptional Indian intellectuals from both Christian and other communities. The Christian missionaries envisaged education as God’s work and eagerly employed it as the instrument of social change. Women’s liberation and upliftment through education was one of the major responsibilities of early Christians in India. It was only because the Christians established schools that admitted girls; many Indian women were inspired to step out of their domestic households and saw the rays of enlightenment. In a country where women are yet to get emancipation, it is heartening to note that the first women’s college was established (Isabella Thoburn College, Uttar Pradesh) as early as in 1886 to be followed by the establishment of the second college exclusively for women (Sarah Tucker College, Tamilnadu) in 1895.