The Human Auditory System As An Anatomical System

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EAR The human auditory system is one of the most intricate, miraculous, and an ingenious creation designed to transfer sound waves from environment to brain in a most efficient and precise manner. The ear can be described as both an analytic microphone and a microcomputer, sending sound impulses to the brain. Ear is capable of turning the tiniest disturbances to a form that brain can understand and doing so instantaneously, over an enormous range of pitch and loudness. Being extremely complicated organ, it performs dual function of balancing and perceiving sound. The auditory system is highly complex and composed of three anatomical compartments, the external, middle and inner ear, which function as an entity. The boundary between the external ear and the middle ear is the tympanic membrane. The middle ear contains the auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes). The boundary between the middle ear and the inner ear is the oval window (Fig1:1). The inner ear has sensory receptors, which utilize the hair cell for sensory transduction. THE OUTER EAR The external ear consists of three parts: the outer ear (auricle or pinna), the external auditory canal (auditory meatus) and the eardrum (tympanic membrane). THE PINNA Pinna directs sound to auditory canal and is composed of cartilaginous framework of elastic connective tissues which are attached to skull by ligaments and muscles (Fig 1:1). THE AUDITORY CANAL (AUDITORY MEATUS) Auditory meatus is a short canal (~ 1"),

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