Bertolt Brecht is revolutionary playwright and brilliant poet of the 20th century. He is notorious for exhibiting socio-economic issues through his art (Gorshein). “Theater of War” is a documentary about the reconstruction of Brecht’s play, “Mother Courage and Her Children”, as imagined by Tony Kushner. Although it manages to encapsulate the genius of Brecht as a playwright, it fails to convey Brecht’s ideas the way he intended. The documentary does
Automatists Automatism is a technique for unconscious drawing, this means the artist is drawing without his own will but draws with an unconscious mind. The surrealist artists explore the creativity with an unconscious mind in art. The word automatism comes from automatic and that is where it shows drawing unconsciously is drawing automatic without thinking. Automatism is also a way for the artist to run away from reality (cultural, intellectual and historical pressure) and set free the creativity of the artist's personality without worrying about the reality. For surrealist artists, automatism was a more noble and higher level behaviour, an approach like how devotees, who see education as a type of creativity.
The tragedy of world warfare and loss of human life inspired philosophical debate as to the nature of human existence and its relation to common principals of divinity and human destiny. According to our textbook Introduction to Philosophy an Online Textbook by Philip Pecorino existentialism is a philosophical movement “emphasizing individual existence” [ CITATION Phi001 l 1033 ]. According to Pecorino’s description, the movement sought to explore that which could be known. Because of this, preternatural avenues were abandoned in favor of what could be discovered. As previously mentioned, the movement gained popularity in the twentieth century due to many factors such as two world wars, massive loss of human life, and genocide [ CITATION Wik17 l 1033 ].
Oscar Wilde’s “The Importance of Being Earnest” was a classical satire that explored the ridiculousness of victorian society and manners. Wilde’s purpose in creating this satire was to awaken the people. By exaggerating about ridiculous details, it also allowed people to see more clearly about the reality of this society. One example is when Lady Bracknell wanted Jack to find his parents: “I would strongly advise…… to produce at any rate one parent, of either sex.” (Wilde, 995). This shows the the reader that the society is very unreasonable and ridiculous.
Zola was one of the first writers who puts forth the idea of talking about contemporary art forms by reflecting upon contemporary circumstances and not, for example, by blaming Aristotle for giving useless theories; this is also the concept that theoreticians of modern tragedy like Arthur Miller, John Gassner, Howard Barkner, George Steiner, Albert Camus and many more have taken up. Many of them suggest changes in nomenclature so that the ideas associated with those names change according to the times. Samuel Beckett, one of the leading playwrights of the 20th Century, also shares his roots with the naturalist ideas. He is one of the best known proponents of the Absurd Theatre as discussed by Martin Esslin in his book titled, The Theatre of the Absurd. However, when he moves from his earlier writing to a later one where the characters become extremely impersonal, he is achieving what Zola suggests in his essay ‘Naturalism in the Theatre’ for
It amplified a message that ‘anything could be art and anyone an artist’, (Kuenzli, 2015). The work created was revolutionary, it challenged established views and dismantled the traditional rules of communication with an aim to iconoclast the barbaric modern society. One of the founding artists Jean Arp declared, Communities of artists and campaigners currently across the globe use Graphic Design practice to try and ‘restore balance’ in society, culture and politics.
To elaborate, Surrealism was a 20th-century avant-garde art movement that originated in Paris from 1924 to 1941, which consisted of principles, ideals, or practice of producing incongruous imagery or effects in media to create shocking experiences to audiences in order to capture reality. One of the most notable works that impacted the movement of Surrealism represented in film would be the 1929 silent motion picture, Un Chien Andalou (The Andalusian Dog); it was acclaimed by critics for it focused on continuing the approach of Surrealism by destabilizing bourgeois society and give vent to repressed and deep thoughts that resides in a person’s psyche. The rise of digital visual effects in film has also come a long way and even portrays a everyday role in contemporary cinema, by allowing audiences to perceive reality through innovative experiences; however, it has become repetitive (and unoriginal) that cinema has been supplied with digital tools that are merely designed as a crutch to take modern viewers through a looking glass into domains of novel perceptual experience. In terms of defining Surrealism, Salvador Dalí quoted: “Surrealism is destructive, but it destroys only what it considers to be shackles limiting our
It is mostly a parody of a famous play. It can be a parody or negligence but has a concept of a well-made play. Playwrights related to the Theatre of Absurd include Eugene Ionesco, Jean Genette, Toms Stopper, Harold Pinter and Edward Albee. The origin of the theatre is rooted in the avant-grade experiments in the art of 1920’s and 1930’s.It was highly influenced with the tragic experiences of horrors of World War I. It also reflects the trauma of living from 1945 under the threats of nuclear annihilation which becomes a major factor for the rise of the New Theatre.
Whilst many believe terrorism is a new phenomenon, the term ‘terrorism’ goes back several hundred years to the French Revolution. Concentrating on the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) and Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), this essay will compare and contrast the different strategies and tactics of terrorist groups from the 1970’s to the present day. In doing so, the essay will demonstrate consistency in strategy amongst terrorist groups – the search for political recognition despite differing tactical approaches to their campaigns. The essay will firstly begin by breaking down why the ideologies are similar and how they begin to form the overall strategy. Next, how the differences in media coverage have starved or helped each major terrorist
English literature works as an instrument that covers the major issues through the ages. The 20th century witnessed two revolutionary warfare that impacted the field of literature to a great extent. The social upbringing of ideologies like nationalism and human welfare formed a separate dominant genre in literature. This literature movement was propagated through various incentives that emerged through the social or international struggle. The emotional collapse and turmoil that took shape during these wars demanded the element of emotional relief and literature helped with the flow of such psychological barriers.