Pictorial photographers considered themselves as serious amateurs, motivated by artistic forces rather than financial gain. In 1869, Henry Peach Robinson 's first published Pictorial Effect in Photography, this influence throughout the United States, Europe, and Latin America. In Europe formed salons and clubs like The Linked Ring Brotherhood, The Royal Photographic Society and The Photo-Club of Paris. And in America in 1902, Stieglitz established the group called the Photo-Secession. Pictorialism was a photography approach emphasizing the beauty of subject matter as beautifully rendered as any painter 's canvas and as skillfully constructed as any graphic artist 's composition rather than documenting of reality.
Like its direction ahead of modernism, avant-garde was aimed at radical transformation of human consciousness through art, the aesthetic revolution that would destroy the spiritual backwardness existing society, with its artistic and utopian strategy and tactics were much more vigorous, anarchic and rebellious. Cubism is an art direction in the first quarter of the XX century, representative which depicted objective world in the right combinations of video geometric volumes: cubes, spheres, cylinders, cones. Classic representative of Cubism in painting is Jorge Braque, Pablo Picasso, Fernand Leger, Gris Juan Delaunay, Robert Jean Mettsenzhe. Dismemberment of real shapes and proportions, the transition to geometric silhouettes marked the transition to a fundamentally new direction - Cubism. This discovery Picasso did with French artist Georges Braque.
But among these questions, one seems to be spontaneous: who did influence its outbreak? The 18th century reveals the Enlightenment - a cultural movement that spreading in all Western Europe, turns in a real cultural revolution. What is new in this movement is the will of enlightening the mind of man, benighted of ignorance and superstition, with the use of reason. These new thinkers blindly believed on the power of reason and wanted, in fact, to interpret reality through reasoning. By becoming a cultural revolution, we do not talk about enlightenment only in philosophy and literature, because Enlightenment brought changes in art as well - from the frivolous and exaggerated Rococo to a return toward classic
Some of the recurring themes in works of postmodern literature turned out to be paranoia, minimalism, metafiction and twists on heroism. Heroism came to be a debatable topic in analysis of postmodern literature because of the arguable diversity between the novels. However, it’s sole purpose was not just to entertain, but like most art, for the author to express themselves in a way they haven’t been able to. As a result, Catch-22 presents Yossarian as an anti-hero used by its author, Joseph Heller, to introduce his opinion on war, war heroes and the current social status of the United States. The altered perception of heroism, believed to be present in only some works of postmodern literature, is used to convey the author’s state of mind to the reader in an
Amusing the Million by John F. Kasson uses Coney Island as a turning point in American history before World War I. Coney Island at the rise of a new mass culture during the twentieth century allowed society to be free from the ever so conformity that the government has bestowed upon them. Being free from the urban industrialized genteel control; the creation of Coney Island served a purpose to detach from the formal culture in which they were living in. This era has sparked cultural freedom with that gave society a thrilling new find in amusement parks which went against societal genteel norms. Coney Island was used as an escape from the industrialized life that wanted to establish civil order. Kasson explains the turn of the century that encompassed educators, critics, and genteel reformers who took charge in controlling the public.
SALVADOR DALI AND SURREALISM The creed of the first Surrealist Manifesto (1924) postulated the primacy of the mind over matter and, in a free interpretation of Freudian theory, the expression of unconscious thought processes, with the least possible control by the ego: Perhaps the time has come when the imagination is close to re-exercising the rights that correspond to it. [...] SURREALISM, noun, masculine. Pure psychic automatism, through which we try to express [...] the real functioning of thought. It is a dictation of thought, without the regulatory intervention of reason, oblivious to any aesthetic or moral concern. [...] Surrealism is based on the belief in the higher reality of certain forms of association disdained until the appearance of it, [in the omnipotence of the dream], and in the free exercise of
In order to support this view, I will analyse the poems Anthem for doomed youth and Dulce Et Decorum Est. Patriotic organizations (as the Central Committee for National Patriotic Organizations) and nationalists views help establish a propaganda machine that twist the real image of war. Even before the war broke out in 1914, many people saw the conflict with Germany inevitable considering the vast amounts of pro-war propaganda circulated by the government, the press private patriotic organizations, and even popular British authors. Its purpose was to "build up the image of national and allied leaders as the embodiment of courage, heroism, and resolution, while the enemy leaders become the embodiment of evil and the scapegoats for the war." To the British, it was their duty to fight against Germany; it was a just cause that should be
It might have been through this abstract literary and intellectual movements that radical plans rise from, furthermore these thoughts offered route to the age of revolutions, including American and the French Revolutions, which transformed the entire fabric of Western society. Throughout this period, there flourished both idealistic and negative plans concerning what upcoming day of humankind. In reaction to classical values of order, regularity and objectivity, the Romantic Movement laid stress on the passionate manifestations of articulation. “The “Romantic” refus[ed] to recognize the restraints in subject matter or form, and…represent[ed] the abnormal, grotesque, and monstrous…modes of expression” (Perkins, 1967,p.2) English Romantic writers in building and also reacting against the mind of their progenitors broke for significant patterns and viewed themselves as visionaries for the capacity to search past in the normal done life, and with consider man’s extreme plan in an dubious universe. The principal era of Romantics like William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge hesitated in
In fact it was rather modernism, as its name implies ,that tried to awake from the nightmare of history, self-consciously setting itself against the past, and rejecting mundane forms of historical understanding. Modernism doesn’t wholely favoured the simply historic narratives rather find truth is not evolutionary and progressive but something requiring analysis. Tracing the works of the modernist poets, especially the works of early twentieth century it should be voluntarily marked as art after the first world war which in time recorded all the emotional aspects of this crisis of longing despair, hopelessness, angst, paralysis and moreover a sense
This statement is related to the concept of realism, indeed by affirming that he wants to represent the society and the human types, his novels should have some real foundations taken from the reality. Consequently, the context became fundamental and it represents the starting point for the description of the events. Le Père Goriot is set in 1819, after the Napoleon defeat and when the industrial revolution started. It was a period of great revolution and changes between the hierarchy of the social classes and Balzac aims to represent the various tensions of that period, especially in Paris. Moreover, in the Avant-Propos Balzac affirm that the novelist should be the secretary of the history, he tells us the story from a scientific point of view because he added that the novelist has to study the humanity as the biologist study the animals.
“Millar said he changed the storyline, created by Jerome Siegel and Joseph Shuster in 1934, to create a modern commentary on ‘unethical American foreign policy’” (Boztas). Millar says it is so, so it must be; but Millar also admits, in his article in the Sunday Times, that DC wanted him to radically change Superman to sell more comics. It is feasible that both could be true and the vilification came with the writing process as Millar was given this task. America learning that they can’t take control wherever they want to might have been the point Millar was trying to get across and it is there but a larger point emerged while this mini-series was being created. “Yet in many ways, by mixing up Superman with real world politics, Millar is helping to return the character to his roots” (Heer).
To these people they know that the United States’ original founders created the Declaration of Independence they wrote that all men were to be created equal and this is how freedom was given. The evidence however supports that freedom must be demanded. In the story “The Censors” by Lusia Valenzuela the quote, “...Juan wouldn’t overdo it: any distraction could make him lose his edge and the perfect censor had to be alert, keen, attentive, and sharp to nab cheats. He had a truly patriotic task, both self-denying and uplifting” (Valenzuela 91-92). This quote shows how the government can portray the illusion of while simultaneously oppressing the people.