The Impact Of The Feminization Of Migration In The Philippines

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Introduction According to Ross-Sheriff, (2009:235), almost half of all migrants worldwide are women, and a country where this trend is most prevalent is the Philippines. It is a leading labour-exporting country, with over 10% of its labour force overseas (Asis, 2006; Bindra, 2012; Cortes, 2015) with 74% of new migrants being females (Cortes, 2015). Hence, the Philippines is an appropriate case study in discussing the feminization of migration. The female domestic worker will be examined as they represent a significant proportion of female migrants abroad and they are among the most vulnerable migrants, with some likening them to modern slaves (Mantouvalou, 2012; Sloan, 2013; Leghtas, 2015). First, I will discuss the reasons initiating the move overseas using a scalar analysis, identifying factors at various scales, which will be discussed in the next section followed by examining the resultant impacts. I argue that in examining the reasons and impacts of this migration, female agency (or lack thereof) is placed in a central role where agency is defined as the “capacity for individualised choice and action” (Meyers, 2014). Subsequently, the state’s directives on migration will be discussed and evaluated and I argue that while effective locally, it has limited effectiveness overseas. Finally, I argue that the trend of the feminization of migration is likely to continue, bringing significant implications on women’s agency and human rights in the future. Reasons for Migration

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