They studied the effects of economic expansion, particularly how the economy of the 1990s created more entry-level jobs and increased wages (especially among low-skilled workers), possibly decreasing the motivation and opportunity to engage in crime. In the Great American Decline, Zimring (2007) argues that large increase in imprisonment lowered crime rates in the 1990s. Nevertheless, that was hard to prove because of the magnitude and timing of the relationship. Imprisonment increased significantly through the 1970s and the 1980s, but crime did not significantly decrease until the 1990s. Zimiring goes on to say that the full impact of imprisonment can only be understood over time; it is the accumulated 400 percent growth in imprisonment that led to the crime
Every year, millions of illegal immigrants are challenged to cross the borders to the United States in search for jobs. However, illegal immigration is becoming an issue that not only is affecting the United States politically and economically, but also the job market. Moreover, the United States has the highest rank if illegal immigrants because of the jobs opportunities it offers to people. Therefore, this is creating many controversies between illegal immigrants and American citizens because of their differences. As a result, many immigrants are taking many jobs from American citizens and this issue has impacted the United States positively and negatively.
Strain theory Strain theory is the state of a variety in certain strains and stressors in a person’s life that increases the likelihood of crime. A majority of life circumstances can lead individuals to create a crime from their negative emotions, such as frustration and anger. Crime may be used escape from strain, seeking revenge against the person or source of strain or any related targets. They come from social factors, such as lack of income or the level of quality in education the person has received. There are many ideas underlying strain theory such as classical strain theories focused specifically on some disadvantages from different groups in society.
Together with other renowned opponents of capitalism, Williams (2005) asserts that there is great danger in relying, exclusively, on self-regulating markets. In his view, relying exclusively on market system for organization of life is an ideological, mythical construct that could prove difficult to realize since it would undermine human existence foundations. As he explained it, “deprived of the cultural institutions’ protective coverage citizens of a nation would perish from the consequences of social exposure”. The expansion of capitalist markets in this regard has extensively resulted in commodification of crime. As a result, different studies have been conducted to investigate the significance of social institutions in explaining crime rate variation across diverse institutional
Economists have also come up with other forms of analyses to understand the complex cyclical relationship between these variables. One approach to the problem is that instead of examining the correlations between poverty and violence within countries, or even across countries, economists now are looking towards inspecting the effects of a country falling into poverty by chance or rising to riches by chance, and then surveying its impact on other factors within the society. Scholars have emerged with different theoretical explanations for the causes of conflict in the world. In the face of present crises, the flaws underlying both modernization and democratization theories and the theory of colonialism are being exposed. The long held perception that modernity would result in smooth transition from authoritarian system to democratic system, with gradual elimination of conflict has clearly failed in today’s time.
Even some of the company’s business still maintain a good momentum of development, but in accordance with foreign headquarters need to adjust the overall deployment, there are still many enterprises were shut down individual business, and related businesses to sell or exit from the market (The impact of the financial crisis on the Euro Area, 2008). Furthermore, in order to cut down cost, Carrefour also sacked 10000 employees start from year of 2009, although it manage to gain profit increased by at the same time, it also caused workers strike due to low wages and job cuts (Ira,
Seasonal unemployment happens when workers are required for certain periods in a year when the demand for their expertise is high. I remember when I worked for Metal and Engineering Bargaining Council (MEIBC), employees that were working in the Air-conditioning Sector would be laid off during winter because there was less demand for air-conditioners but they will be re-hired again in summer when the demand is higher. Structural unemployment happens mostly when there is technological changes or improvement in the workplace. I am reminded of Dick Wittington Shoes in Pietermaritzburg in the early 1990’s where many people retrenched because there was a new technology or new technique that was introduced in the factory and there was a new way of producing shoes. This sort of unemployment also happens when the company is relocating from one country to the
Literature Review Unemployment is viewed as a major problem worldwide. The risk of unemployment involves the people, companies, problems, and the mass media. In this study, the reactions of media towards unemployment will be discussed, as well as the problems concerning unemployment being compared with one another. Unemployment Jobs have been a demand in order to survive. Unemployment describes people of working age, wanting to work, but is not able to have one.
Student’s Name Course Code Lecturer Due Date Economics of Corruption Corruption in an economic system starts at a macro-level. Growth of corruption and increasing presence in communities often affects entire systems of governance and produces negative effects on the gross productivity in a country. In addition, the aspect of gross inefficiency from the incidence of corruption has a frictional effect on economic development. Therefore, corruption practices such as bribery have a huge significance on the economic prospects of the developing countries. Kenya is one such country where corruption practices are rampant.
3.1 INCENTIVE/PRESSURE Incentives/Pressures are incentives of management or other employees to commit fraud. For example, The company is under pressure to meet debt covenants or obtain additional financing. In the case of MAS, the company has cash reserves of RM600 million when Tajuddin took over responsibility as CEO. He was leaved with an overlarge fleet and diminishing profits. Although the sales rose to RM4.1 Billion in the year ending March 3, 1994, profits fell from RM145.4 Million to RM7.7 Million.