It is generally accepted that the introduction of literacy is a valuable contribution to educational progress. But, as shown by Mühlhäusler’s article, it has inevitable repercussions on unlettered societies worth considering before undertaking such an endeavour. Mühlhäusler deals with a range of sociolinguistic ramifications of the introduction of literacy to communities living in the Pacific area. His main thesis claims that the introduction of vernacular literacy causes linguistic, religious and social changes. He even goes so far as to assert that “[t]he most general long-term effect of literacy in the vernacular has been language decline and death” (190).
Rush Limbaugh discusses multiculturalism and its possible failings to America culture. Limbaugh believes teaching minorities about their roots hinder their “future as Americans.” He continues to say “If you want to prosper in America, if you want access to opportunity in America, you must be able to assimilate: to become part of the American culture.” This statement, personally, implies other cultures cannot have the same work ethic and values as “regular” Americans, which is a presumptuous statement to make. To a certain point, yes, incoming immigrants and generational immigrants do have to adapt to the American culture, but their roots do not discount their ability to succeed in American society. Limbaugh continues to state that multiculturalism
Indeed, references to organizations, individuals or works are close to non-existent in the corpus, which explains the overall weak recognition of a Walloon standard. Standardization faces three majors challenges: first, speakers feel a sense of alienation toward the rfondou standard whose spelling is too remote from their pronunciation or they criticize the relativity of the Feller diasystem, which fails to unite the speakers beyond the variational level; second, the access to prescriptive discourse is too difficult for speakers to correct their speech easily; third, Walloon knowledge is principally in the oral sphere and few speakers feel comfortable writing it. As a consequence, speakers either develop a hybrid language where their French knowledge compensates their Walloon shortcomings or they have recourse to alternative sources of prescriptive references. The discourse on prescriptive norms brings to light the dire need for accessible linguistic technologies, which could be achieved by user-friendly online tools for speakers. Moreover, an augmented production of written content could be the second step for the development of prescriptive
However, some researchers appear to snub this concept. Noting a lack of research to – systematically – frame cosmopolitan with educational practice, critics have drawn fire on cosmopolitanism: “naive utopianism, political aloofness, uncritical universalism, moral rootlessness, disguised ethnocentrism, and elitist aestheticism” (Hansen, 2010, p. 151). I disagree with the dissenters. There may not be a distinctive educational philosophy of cosmopolitanism that sets an agenda just as clearly as the Montessori model is a distinct antithesis of rote education. But, “it is time to stop quibbling over definitions, to stop trying to organize the unorganizable…we do not in this community speak with one voice” (Murphy, 2000, cited in Haywood, 2007,
In short, a prescriptivist believes that effective communication in a given language may be achieved only by strictly adhering to centralized rules. Conversely, a descriptivist believes that so long as a sentence is able to convey its intended message, it is a correct usage of language. I am staunchly of the belief that prescriptivism in the English language is unfeasible, if not downright dangerous. As the language of one of the world’s dominant ideologies, attempting to fit the ever-changing shape of English into strict boundaries is not only ineffective, but likely impossible. Now, with the advent of the Internet, entire generations of anglophones are experiencing an ‘awokening’, and a wave of neologisms, neopronouns, and obscure-yet-somehow- universally-understood meme references is on the horizon.
However, Campani (2002, p. 170) argues that anti-racist education is facing several obstacles, and multicultural education remains a controversial issue in Europe. She also states that education is an important tool to mainstream the fight against racism. On the other hand, Campani (2002) says that education systems of several countries resist accepting changes, which, in their opinion will affect their culture in a bad manner. These countries should make their education system more tolerant. Teaching equality in schools might have a lot of benefits and can save the future of the country from race-based
The opposite theory, is a defense of purism, which abolishes prejudice by prohibiting some words, opinions or expressions (such as racism, homophobia or sexism), seen as a help for prejudice. I will defend purism, as I strongly believe that pluralism has many negative sides that don’t belong to our modern democracies. Democracy is developed around the idea of a government « of the people, by the people, for the people » (Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln, 1863). Our western societies are in majority democracies. According to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, « Respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and the principle of holding periodic and genuine elections by universal suffrage are essential elements of democracy.
Byram, 1997; Alptekin, 2012; Liddicoat et. al., 3013). Alptekin (2012) argues that communicative competence with its native speaker standards is utopian, unrealistic, and constraining in relation to English as an International Language. The approach is considered as misleading since its objective is to help learners achieve a native-speaker-like language proficiency, which Byram (1997) believes to be an impossible goal and results in “inevitable failure” (p. 11), and which Alptekin (2012) considers as a “linguistic myth”. Further, Alptekin (2002, as cited in Alyan, 2011, p. 43) maintains that the cultural aspect of the communicative competence focuses on native speaker and leaves “the learners own culture in a peripheral position or even completely ignored” (p.62).
In our lives we have to feel certain about some thinks, and one of them have to be your spelling and language. As text 2 says, English is a bitch to learn but once you master the core vocabulary, it’s pretty much automatic (Text 2, ll.130-135). Therefore I do not think that we should change the spelling norms because when you first master it, its pretty easy. In the same way it would also affect the whole world if the spelling norms where changed, because it is an international language that are spoken over the entire
Universality of maxims However, among thecontemporary linguists and philosophers there have been intreste in Grice’s view as it become the basic concept in pragmatics. They argue that his cooprative princiole and maxims cannot be generally to all uttrances applied due to intercultural differences, Keenan (1976). Keenan did some studies on Malagasy people and found that they are breaking the maxims of quantity mostly. They tend to be not following Grice princple accualy they were following the oppsite princple to achieve sucsse in conversation cooprative . And she supported that by providing a question and its reply as .