Counterproductive Work Behavior: A Case Study

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The framework in figure 2.2 includes task and contextual performance with the addition of adaptive performance and counterproductive work behaviour. Adaptive performance is defined as the extent to which an individual adapts to changes in a work system. Examples are: solving problems creatively, dealing with uncertain or unpredictable work situations, learning new tasks, technologies, and procedures, and adapting to other individuals, cultures, or physical surroundings. Counterproductive work behaviour is defined as behaviour that harms the well-being of the organisation such as absenteeism, being late for work, engaging in off-task behaviour, theft, and substance abuse (Koopmans et al. 2011:862).

2.3.3 Predictors of job performance
Sonnentag
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Knowledge and experience are core performance determinants and are related to job performance (Sonnentag et al. 2008:432).

In addition to cognitive factors, knowledge and experience, non-cognitive traits are also important as person-specific predictors of job performance. According to Sonnentag et al. (2008:432) these non-cognitive traits include personality factors such as proposed by the The Five Factor Model (Digman, 1990; McCrae and Costa,1989) differentiates five distinct dimensions of personality:
• Emotional stability-individuals high on emotional stability are characterised by low negative affectivity and tend to respond with less subjective distress to negative events than do individuals low on emotional stability.
• Extraversion- refers to individuals' propensity to experience positive affect and to be sociable, assertive, and energised by social interactions.
• Openness to experience- characterises an individual's tendency to be creative, flexible, imaginative and willing to take
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However Kumar and Raghavendran (2013:17) argue that talent management strategies in organisations were meant to unlock the value of talent of employees to the organisation .But performance management systems that should be focusing on innovativeness and entrepreneurship is actually penalising the employee in terms of risk taking. They argue that this limitation make employees to pursue lower targets than drive innovation and entrepreneurship.

2.3.5 The theoretical basis for performance management
The underlying foundations for performance management lie in the motivation theory. Motivation is an important factor in initiating, guiding, sustaining and stopping human behaviour.Motivation theory is based on the needs theory and the process theory (Amos, Ristow and Ristow, 2004:149).

2.3.5.1 Needs theories
These theories focus on the individual factors within each person that initiate, guide, sustain and stop behaviour.Three theories are identified:
• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory focus on human needs as drivers of behaviour.The theory states that individuals first satisfy their low order needs before satisfying higher order needs (Amos et al.
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