Title Abstract 150 Introduction500 405 Personality is a range of correlated behaviours that are expressed in different contexts. Animals exhibit behavioural syndromes, which is a set of behaviours seen in multiple scenarios. (huntingford 1976 as read in Pelligrini et al., 2010)..Find this!. An example of a behavioural syndrome is the shy/bold continuum (i.e. proactive-reactive) (Wilson et al., 1994 as read in Pellegrini et al., 2010). Boldness has been studied in many species.
Psychology is the science of behaviour and is concerned with perception and learning. The behavioural patterns of organisms and how they adapt to changing environments is of particular interest to psychologists. In the past psychology was based mainly on introspection. The assumption of early behaviourists, such as Pavlov, was that all behaviour was essentially of the same form (George, 1971). Humans are social animals, we share this feature with many other species (Gallese, 2001).
Intro A wild mustang’s responses to abiotic and biotic factors can either be forced or an inclination. Their natural instinctive responses come out with mating, climate, competition, defense, food availability, and communication, while they are forced to respond to climate, and pollution. Wild mustang’s behaviors towards biotic factors have only somewhat changed over the years, as some biotic factors have not changed, while some have.
The mind and brain can be both interconnected and yet distinct. As the text says, the mind is a realm of logic, induction, ethics and morals, while the brain as an organ is composed of cellular machinery, hormones and gene expression (Hassert, 194). However, these two layers often overlap and are not easy to distinguish. I do feel like there is a dualism between the mind and brain. The text suggests that positive attitudes in treatment can cause the placebo effect.
From a biological perspective, elements that are able to influence aggression includes, genetic influences, neural influences and biochemical influences. Genetic Influences suggests that aggression can be inherited. Research shows that there have been successful attempts at breeding highly aggressive strains of certain animals, such as, mice and rabbits. Overall psychologist believe that our genetic make-up may influence whether or not we are a more aggressive person; however, our environmental factors also play a crucial part in determining wether we do in fact become an aggressive person or if we are pre-disposed to use aggressive behaviour. Neural Influences involves understanding that aggression is not solely formed in one particular area of the brain.
Researchers have studied cultural diversity in context of personality psychology (Van Der Zee, Atsma & Brodbeck, 2004). A number of psychologists have investigated human personality domains that impact one’s interaction in diverse settings and multicultural com-munities (Arasaratnam & Doerfel, 2005; Herfst, Van Oudenhoven, & Timmerman, 2008; Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2004). One such domain is multicultural personality characterized by individuals who are emotionally stable and secure about their cultural identity. They wel-come diversity and are proactive to learn from and interact with culturally different people (Ponterotto, 2006).
Heroic Helping – Jason Austin Cole Helping behaviour is a form of prosocial behaviour, a term which according to Batson (1998, pg. 282) “was created by social scientists as an antonym for antisocial”. It is defined as acts that intentionally benefit someone else (Eisenberg, 1989, pg. 3). However, there are two major perspectives on helping. The first is the Evolutionary perspective which states that we, like animals, have evolved innate tendencies to eat and drink, so too have we evolved innate tendencies to help others (Stevens, Cushman & Hauser, 2005, pg. 499). The second is the Social Psychology perspective which states that helping behaviour can be either Egoistic, meaning that helping is motivated by self-interest (Piliavin, 1973), or
Being the most advanced animal on Earth, humans often neglect the fact that we are too classified as animals, along with a multitude of others. People find animals fascinating; we keep many different species as pets and frequent zoos to stare at them as they lay around doing nothing, but nonetheless we find it entertaining. In recent years, a more debatable conversation has sparked about whether animals are conscious beings and capable of complex emotions and tasks. New evidence has been researched, making people change their old views, or sometimes making them stick to their guns even more. Animals have conscious minds that enable them to experience their surroundings in various ways, can think and feel emotions, and can solve problems they face in life.
Not only do the animals abused not deserve to be, but these behaviors can also signal very alarming behaviors for humans in the future. An offender can have a multitude of motivations pertaining to the animal abuse. These motivations have been theorized to include: to control the animal, to retaliate against the animal, to satisfy hatred towards a specific breed or animal, to express aggression, enhance aggressiveness, for the shock factor and amusement, retaliate against another person, displaced anger, and nonspecific sadism (citation). If any of these behaviors have been witnessed they should be reported. Family based prevention programs have been shown to be beneficial for these individuals in disrupting their horrendous
This usually causes extinction within that species, and researchers have decided to do something about it. Although endangered animals are born in the wild, they should be sheltered and protected in nature parks because it helps decrease the amount of extinctions, allows a better and healthier environment, and the animals are protected from predators and human hunters. Endangered animals are to be kept in zoos because it decreases the amount of extinctions. Human activities have affected animals living in the wild dramatically throughout history. Roads being built and
Natural Selection Introduction: Natural Selection is the ability to survive and reproduce in a given environment. It is known due to evolution that has occurred over time and how mutation, migration, and genetic drift have changed. There is a variation in traits in animals, for example some birds have bigger beaks that can be used to feed on worms and bugs that are way underneath the river and lakes. Also there is a differential reproduction that occurs because not all animals can reproduce the same amount and there is a limit that the environment can support over time.
Animal-assisted interventions are defined as the purposeful use of animals as an aid in treating mental and physical health disorders. As previously noted animal-assisted interventions include animal-assisted activities, animal-assisted therapy, and service animal programs (Ferriero, Brigatti, Valero, Franchignoni, & Munoz, 2011). AAT is a supportive goal orientated intervention, which results from human-animal interaction (Buettner, Fitzsimmons, & Barbara, 2011). The interaction between an animal and human result in an increase neurochemicals initiating and trigger a psychosomatic effect. The strong bonding between humans and animals affect to mental, social and physical health (Clements, Benasutti, & Carmone, 2003).