Antimicrobial Resistance Research Paper

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1. Introduction about antimicrobial resistance
The word antimicrobial derived from the Greek word anti that means against, micros that means little and bios that means life. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the ability of the microbe to resist the effects of the medicines that are previously used to treat them. This also covers the antibiotic resistance that applies to the antibiotics and bacteria. There are three ways of resistance: generic mutation, natural resistance in special types of bacteria or by one species gaining resistance from another. Resistance can be appeared due to the misuse of anti microbials or antibiotics or due to random mutations. The resistant microbes are difficult to treat but they need alternative medicines or higher
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The isolates that are collected from the five different hospitals are represented both nosocomial and pathogens acquired from community. Resistance between Gram negative bacilli and Gram positive cocci was wide between the participating hospitals. Staphylococcal isolates were the most highly resistant to all antimicrobial tested except vancomycin. Five times of negative staphylococci were isolated and compared with S. aureus. Some of the negative staphylococci may be the cause of bacteraemia and many can cause skin contamination. In the bloodstream isolates of staphylococci, 77% of negative staphylococci strains and 71% of S. aureus strains were resistant to oxacillin. The rates of S. aureus in Egypt were higher than those in Canada and the U. S. by the comparison with our isolates. The Canadian isolates of S. aureus were also more susceptible to macrolides, sluoroquinolones, co-trimoxozole and gentamicin. In our isolates, penicillin resistance of S. pneumonia was identical to other parts of the world. Although higher than the reports previously from Egypt. SENTRY study’s results in Canada and the U. S. showed decreased susceptibility of pneumococci to penicillin with a degree similar to Egypt’s isolates. In a variance to reports from many parts of the world, less than 5% of Egypt’s enterococcal isolates were resistant to…show more content…
The first stage is the development of new drugs, vaccines and alternative therapies as antibiotics. There is an international governance work with WHO to be through with a global plan to treat over 194 countries. The ambitious philanthropic initiatives can arise for antibiotics in the wake of the achievements. Now there is a good cooperation at the highest level in the European Union between the U. S. and the EU for making innovative research and more cooperative for new antibiotics to identify the actions that can be preceded with the highest chance of success. Proceed in genomics, computer science and genetics will change the way of diagnosis and detection to the infections and the new types of resistance, by this way we can fight strongly the bacteria that evolves to resist drugs. In the future, these technological proceed will make rapid diagnostic tools that will improve by the time the way of using antibiotics, HIV, TB drugs and antimalarials. The important step is investing in sanitation and basic health infrastructure that will help the patients from high rates of the infection. The chances of the industry that are presented by diagnostic and drug innovations will help many countries to make more effective technologies that will support the economic success for a long term. The crisis of antimicrobial resistance can be averted if Egypt and other countries take action rapidly soon. We must be

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