Harassment can include, for example, offensive comments about a person 's religious beliefs or practices. Harassment is so recurrent, severe that it creates a hostile and offensive work environment. It results in a negative employment decision such as the victim being fired, denied or demoted. The harasser can be the victim 's supervisor, a supervisor in another area, a co-worker, or someone who is not an employee of the employer, such as a client or customer. Employer has to accommodate an employee 's religious beliefs or practices based on the law; Title VII of Civil Rights Act.
If we want to limit speech because of harm then we will have to ban a lot of political speech. Most of it is useless, a lot of it is offensive, and some of it causes harm because it is deceitful, and because it is aimed at discrediting specific groups. It also undermines democratic citizenship and stirs up nationalism and jingoism, which results in harm to citizens of other countries. Even worse than political discourse, according to Kateb, is religious speech; he claims that a lot of religious speech is hateful, useless, dishonest, and foments war, bigotry and fundamentalism. It also creates bad self-image and feelings of guilt that can haunt persons throughout their lives.
He also introduced cultural racism in which people associate beliefs with an illusory culture. It is something that shifts and molds in response to history. In response to 9/11 the world experienced fragility especially those of Islamic faith. Unaware of what the long-term effect would be the emergence of Islamophobia and animosity in the form of violent attacks directed at them from Western countries was consequential. Henzell-Thomas (2004) identified the major problems which were perpetuated by Islamophobia and one of them being “the misleading association of Islam with specific cultural identities and practices, especially Asian and African.
Ethnocentrism is a major reason for divisions amongst members of different races and religious groups in a society. In international relations, ethnocentrism creates conflicts and inhibits resolution of conflicts. There are extreme forms of ethnocentrism that pose serious social problems such as racism, colonialism and ethnic cleaning. It is difficult to completely prevent ethnocentrism but it can be decreased by raising awareness of it. In general, ethnocentrism has been described as an individual psychological disposition which has both positive and negative outcomes.
The subject of these advertisements usually prompt controversy by the use of profanity, racist, nudity and sexual appeals. The subject of this advertising type instigates controversy mainly by the use of nudity and sex in advertising. These advertisements are usually considered to be unethical and cause audiences to raise an eyebrow. Use of sexual images in a manner to objectify women is condemned by many because of how much influence visual media has on people. Many complaints have been registered across the world against shock advertisements.
People react vigorously to gender nonconformity may be due to their perception of binary sex and gender and their negative feelings to people who do not fit in the gender norms. Firstly, many people are not custom to a continuum of sex and gender spectrum and mixing up sex and gender together. While they cannot find a place for the people with gender nonconformity in the binary gender system, man or woman, people would be confused by them and treat them as abnormal. Therefore, the people with gender nonconformity apearing in the public would be escaped from, discussed, dispised or other unfavorable treatments. Secondly, gender norms nowadays prevails that it creates gender roles and assist the society order.
Their proclivity through the risk is often push them into the conflict against established movement organizations, especially in religion. In the term of movements, radicalism is an upshot of the close relations or connections among activist or the actor and development of their identity which positioned them in ignoring the “normal” ways to reach and pursue social changes in society. Radicals are being seen because their dedication and their fearless through their actions, often risking themselves for their passions in order to spark a wider protest. In the other side, radical is also being ignored by the society regarding to their confrontations and their violence. Confrontations and violence can gather and collect negative perspective from media, bring their campaign plans, and misunderstanding or wrong perspective trough the values and
However, over the times, it seems that religious differences made problems for a group of people. As one of the effects of religion on political differences, namely the emergence of racist attitudes. Racist attitude is the attitude shown communities in which they dominate particular religion that encourages discrimination. Although it sounds simple, but often encountered racist attitudes in every strata of society. In addition to racism, racial element is also the impact of religious differences.
Unfortunately, many act otherwise and cause misery and tragedy. The unfair treatment of victims of murder, rape, abduction and slavery is unwarranted. This violation of human rights shows that some people have manipulated the definition of freedom by acting selfishly and senselessly. Freedom should be a shared privilege that people celebrate as one family, but the harsh reality forces many to live in fear and danger. Our warriors who had fought for our independence in the past deserve better.