Processes involve decoding, working memory, inference-making, and comprehension monitoring. In contrast, knowledge factors include word meanings and domain knowledge related to the content of what is being read. These factors provide a framework for thinking about current trends in reading comprehension instructional research. Much of the research over the past several years has focused on the teaching of specific comprehension strategies that reflect those used by good readers (Pressley, 2000) and this continues to be an important focus for researchers. However, there is renewed interest in other aspects of reading comprehension.
The ability to construct the meaning of a text, through various strategies, is known as comprehension. For a reader to successfully comprehend a text, they must first extract the meaning of what was read, analyze it, interpret it, and make it their own. This process is interactive and strategic, because the reader is using multiple approaches to grasp the information. Connecting the new information from a text to old non-visual information from their schema is a crucial aspect of comprehension that readers must do. To make sense of the new information, the reader must integrate the material into their schema of connected information.
Something students sometimes do not give enough importance to examples but it should be taken care of while scanning. even Special attention must be paid to the introduction and the conclusion. Intensive Reading Intensive reading requires more efforts and time than the other two types of reading techniques i.e. skimming and scanning. trough this techniques even the language learners can learn new vocabulary by deducting the meaning of word given in context .it even helps us to retain the information with us for a long time even the purpose for reading should be clear in your mind before you go for the intensive reading.
There are several factors that play an important role in learning a language, one of which is attitude. Attitude is acknowledged as one of the most important factors that impacts on learning a language (Fakeye, 2010). Attitude is characterized by a large proportion of emotional involvement such as feelings, self, and relationships in the community (Brown, 2001). It is said that language teachers, researchers, and students should acknowledge that high motivation and positive attitude of students facilitate second language learning. Therefore, learners’ attitudes could be incorporated in language learning because it may influence their performance in acquiring the target language.
Language is a representational system that is the foundation for humans to express their ideas, thoughts and knowledge through communication. The terms that will be discussedare imperative in comprehension linguistics. Teaching second language learners how to read, recognize otheir learning types, strengths and weaknesses higher performance and language development is achieved. Language is the communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of arbitrary signals such as voice, sounds gesters, or written symbols. Dialect refers to a particular form of a language that is peculiar to a specific region or social group.
Next your words and nonverbal messages need to be congruent. The person receiving your message is actually going to "hear" the nonverbal more than the verbal. Paying attention to this is critical. Is your tone of voice matching the words coming out of your mouth? Since I am writing this it is hard to show tone of voice.
Thus, the importance of including warm up activities, planning transition activities, pre-teaching new concepts, and giving breaks between concepts taught to allow comprehension. We should also speak at a lower rate, clearly enunciate our speech and slighlty increase our volume so the student will be able to understand the teacher better. Some experts suggest the use of an amplification system. (Michigan Speech-Language Guidelines, 2012) We have to ask the child to look at us while we are speaking, to repeat the instructions to us to make sure he or she unsderstood, as well as provide steps for the given assignment. We need to speak to the student using simple sentences as complex sentences are more difficult to understand.
Student’s comment reveals that the visual aids contributed a lot in the learning of vocabulary; given the fact that learning the concept with its picture is easier to remember, in addition, putting the words in a place that the students see them as often as possible help the learners to get in more review and memorize them more easily. On the other hand, based on the students’ perceptions, the hours that they have per class is not enough to cover the vocabulary that they learn per lesson, as the students do not have enough time to practice the vocabulary learnt in the class. Therefore, the interviewee argues that the SLG learners should be aware that it is necessary to learn a language to practice it not only in class but in different contexts. The SLG is not only a responsibility of the teacher but also of the students; since learned a language need autonomous and aware students in order to improve the language that they are
Piaget (1962) claimed that play can be one of the most natural ways, so the child can learn easier, many children learn about the world, about the environment through play this means that we should practice play and other activities during English classes in this way it helps the young learners develop their brains. Meece (2002) also wrote some theories about Piaget and Duckworth. Piaget (1964) argued that “learning is subordinated to development and not vice-versa” (p.17). Whereas Duckworth (1964) said “The goal in education is not to increase the amount of knowledge, but to create the possibilities for the child to invent and to discover. When we teach too fast, we keep the child from inventing and discovering himself….
Human language is such a brilliant obvious way that one may naturally be used to explore the available possibilities of mastering it for varied needs. When we deal with the issues of learning and teaching, us being, teachers should clearly realize as to how this complicated process happens both on the part of learning and teaching. Is it important and essential for a Teacher to understand the Principles of Foreign Language Learning and Teaching? When this question is viewed from the research point of view, it is clear that many research studies have been carried out into this filed and unearthed remarkable facts and facets concerning additional language learning and teaching process which at the moment has become one of the essential issues in the field of education in many countries in the world. As far as the principles of foreign language are concerned, it is worth discussing and knowing more about how people learn a language and the factors affecting this process from the point of an academic view.