There are multiple approaches when looking at the way immigrant children or children from immigrant families should be taught. The most common types of bilingual programs analyzed are Paired Bilingual, Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE), Dual Language (DL)/ Two-Way Bilingual Immersion and English-only Immersion. In the Paired Bilingual program children learn in their native language and English. Researchers like Baker, Park, Baker, Basaraba, Kame’enui, and Beck (2012) compared PBE and an English-only program on ELs.
In the English learning literature, the development of a positive attitude towards learning could be attributed to Integrativeness, or the genuine desire to learn a new language so that one can communicate with the members of the community who use the language as their medium of communication (Dörnyei, 1998). However, as the world has become more borderless as exemplified by the EU and the ASEAN, other attitudinal factors were conceptually included. The additions were attributed to the changing of concept from ‘English is a second language to learn’ to ‘English as an international language’(Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009). This resulted to the addition of other attitudinal factors that include Direct contact with English speakers (attitude towards actually meeting English speakers and travelling to their countries) ; Cultural interest (appreciation of cultural products from English speaking countries conveyed by the media); Miliu (the general perception of the importance of English in the learners’ friends and family) (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2009). From the aforementioned attitudinal factors, the following hypotheses were
Through the readings done in class, there have been realizations about emergent bilingual students that have not only shocked me but have made me feel more prepared to properly educate these students. These realizations include the importance of understanding your students’ individual cultures rather than bunching all English Language Learners into the same category; as well as understanding that there are different levels of English Language Learners and creating individual guidance for those students. A third takeaway from the readings thus far involves the educational policies which schools mandate for their ELL’s. These are some ideas that would not have even crossed my mind without these readings, but it has now become clear how vital
1. Introduction Content, culture and context play a vital role in English language teaching, especially in countries where English is a foreign language. Thus, in order to bring some cultural knowledge and expose learners to more natural setting of English in use, teachers rely on TV shows such as Friends, Full house, The nanny, etc. which are popular American sitcoms from the 90’s. These kind of shows offer English teachers authentic materials to bring their learners into contact with language in context which can help them to identify various functions of a single utterance.
They also motivate the students' performance in the language; so in this case, teaching is geared largely to tests. Hughes (1996) mentioned that if a test is regarded important, preparation for it should dominate all teaching and learning activities. Otherwise, the test content and testing techniques will be at variance with objectives of the course, which will result harmful washback. Davies (1990) also mentioned that tests have great influence on teaching, which is known as washback or backwash effect, and this strong influence is usually negative. For example, for university study in one of the English speaking countries, the students should have a good command of language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) in order to be able to understand the lectures in the classroom, take notes, attend classroom discussion, and read and comprehend the texts.
The author elucidates that Romaji compliments, rather than replaces, existing orthography. However, in the current system of Education, the learning of Romaji, with its transparent phonetics, causes serious confusion to some Japanese learning EFL. The author discusses the history and importance of the various styles and their place in society, which explains why some ‘English’ words, particularly in Japanese advertising, seem ludicrous. It also explains why the same names can be written with different spelling. This issue is important as it influences students’ understanding of English letter sounds and combinations.
I will give my own perspective on the use of authentic language, use of games and expressing thoughts and ideas in EFL classrooms. Additionally, I will offer evidence to support my position from literature. My choice of principles is showed in appendix 1. I believe that understanding these principles would allow me to support my learners effectively in their attempts to speak English. Moreover, searching about my chosen principles will help me implement some of them effectively in my teaching to receive great
A bilingual approach to education entails that academic content is taught in two languages, a native language and a second language. The two main ways that bilingual education is brought about is either by choice or necessity. The distinguishing factor is that those who are involved in bilingual education by choice are participating in “enrichment programs” (Beardsmore, 2003, p. 17), which can be called elite bilingualism. Immigrant populations and ethnic minorities are those who are involved based on necessity where “the bilingual provision is frequently temporary, often inadequate and usually stigmatized as marginal.” (Beardsmore, 2003, p. 17)
What are the causes of the incorrect pronunciation when reading English words? 2. What are the appropriate strategies that need to be employed to improve learners’ pronunciation in English? 1.4 Significance of the study
Learning new languages and being bilingual or multilingual lead to new insights. A large number of advantages can be described like developing better cognitive functions. Another advantage of being bilingual