The judge, as well as lawyers for each side, take part in a procedure referred to as voir dire, which basically entails questioning every potential juror to make sure they are free from bias as it relates to the case. Individuals are relieved from jury duty until 6 of them are left - the selected jury of your peers is going to pay attention to the details of your case and make a decision. • Trial: In a The state has the burden to prove their case in a criminal trial. The prosecution starts with an opening statement, and then the lawyer for the defense have an opening statement. Both sides then supply the proof via exhibits and testimony from witnesses.
There are many ways to find out how individuals would react in certain situations, for example, by putting individuals in a simulation. Causing stress and discomfort to individuals in order to gain knowledge is at times necessary. For example, Stanley Milgram’s experiments which focus on obedience to authority and the extent a person is willing to ignore their own ethical beliefs and cause pain to another individual, just because he is ordered to do so. Stanley Milgram writes about his experiments and results in his article “The Perils of Obedience”. In his experiments Stanley Milgram causes subjects who have volunteered to be a part of them some stress and discomfort in order to receive relevant results.
These profiles fall between psychology and law enforcement, some call it “investigative psychology” while another refers to it as “crime action profiling”. The main connection, the common goal they all share; help investigators examine evidence, narrow down a suspect pool, or give helpful tips on how to interrogate a suspect already in custody. Psychology is used to investigate behavioral patterns, personality traits, and psychopathologies. Demographic variables including age, race, and geographical locations are also used in the profiles. Recently criminologists, law enforcement officials, and psychologists have all teamed together to take criminal profiling, which started out as an art and transform it into a reliable science.
According to Alkon (2014:12): Plea bargaining is based on informal negotiations. For plea bargaining to function, prosecutors need to have the discretion to decide when to offer plea bargains and what the offer should include. This can lead to different legal outcomes for otherwise similarly situated defendants. Some variation in sentencing is inevitable, even where all parties have followed the law and acted in good faith in negotiating pleas. However, plea bargaining can be used to cover disparate sentencing due to systemic problems like political interference in the legal system or corruption.
I think that it is important that researchers make sure they aren't making assumption of one group of humans based on another and that they research the specific group of people they need to to make sure that they are fully understanding what they are reporting. I learned that research can be a very complicated procedure and that research have to make sure they aren't false reporting facts that are for all humans when they only studied college students that volunteered for the study. This is important to psychology because it is important to understand researching and what the important factors of certain thing are on the research project. This is also important to humans as a whole because psychological research can help us understand how and why certain groups of people live like they do. It helps us understand that psychological factors can change as you go fro group to group but also how things can be the
Litigation on the other hand is the “ultimate legal method of settling controversies or disputes between and among persons, organizations, and the State”. When discussing litigation in layman’s terms most people will understand it to be the process of hiring legal counsel by two opposing parties, the defence and the prosecution. This is usually a lengthy process that involves presenting your case to the court and having it
e jury receives its direction from the judge. A jury will hear all the evidence during a trial. If the judge is unsure whether certain evidence is proper, the jury may be asked to leave while the judge hears arguments about whether certain evidence can be admitted. At the end of the trial, the judge will instruct the jury on the legal results, which must follow the different possible finding fact. After being given these fin
During the introduction phase, the interviewer’s goal is to develop rapport. Building rapport is essential at the beginning of the interview since the interviewee will be questioned by complete strangers such as police officers, detectives, and psychologists. In addition, the appearances of the interviewer (badge, uniform, police gear, etc.) may create a psychological barrier between the interviewer and the interviewee (Geiselman & Fisher, 2014). To alleviate the barrier of anxiety and mistrust, the interviewer can ask general questions such as.
In any trial, but especially those where one side stands to win or lose vast amounts of money, the members of the jury are carefully vetted by both the defense and prosecution lawyers to ensure that the people selected will deliver the verdict they want. Once the jurors are selected, any potential problems with them are dealt with by the lawyers. In this book, jurors are seen to be bribed, tricked, and even threatened so that they have no choice but to deliver the desired
A police officer is required to handle the situation with discretion by all means, but there might be times in which that could not be the best source. A police officer needs to quickly observe the mentality of the detainee because he or she may have mental issues. According to the article Police discretion and encounters with people experiencing mental illness it is stated that, “Mental health legislation in most jurisdictions outlines the responsibility of the police regarding the protection of people who are a threat to themselves or others. It has long been recognized, however, that these laws represent a framework that can be difficult to apply in specific situations (Godfredson, Ogloff, Thomas & Luebbers, 2015, Pg. 1393).” These are situations in which the officer needs to take a different choice in order to take over of the situation.
As well a lay person may believe a false eyewitness, believing they would not change what exactly they saw. A follow up study to help with these limitations would be a study that would have a more diverse selection of people. They would be administered one of the three scenarios as well. While the people are viewing the scenario, they will also be taking an exam to depict if they are racist or not or have feelings towards people that are different from them. In closing, both discredited eyewitnesses and jurors can determine and outcome of a trial, resulting in a life changing decision for the person that is accused.
In addition to the jury questionnaires that help attorneys get to know the jurors before they see them, it is very helpful to search their social media sites to gather information as well. It is important that each party keeps the trial moving along, juries get bored fast and most are already annoyed that they have to be there in the first place. In most cases the judges will start by questioning the jury with general questions. Then the prosecution has a
If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be provided for you.” These are the third and fourth Miranda Rights. They are saying that suspects can consult a lawyer to support them during their questioning and trial. If they can’t afford or do not have an attorney, the authorities will provide them with one. Suspects are supported by their lawyers whether they plead guilty or innocent. All of the Miranda Rights came to be, due to the case Miranda v. Arizona (1966).
Be a smart test-taker i. Take time to read prompts, questions, and organize your points III. Careers in Psychology A. What Psychologists in Various Professions Do and Where They Work 1. Basic Research Subfields a. Cognitive Psychologists look at biology and the correlations with memory, perception, memory, and judgment, and they can work as professors, or specialists in schools or businesses b. Developmental Psychologists study research changes due to age in regards to behavior, they can work in educational and school psychology or gerontology c. Educational Psychologists are involved in psychology pertaining to learning i.
The role of forensic psychologist, often times are to provide a forensic examination. For this article, the role of forensic psychologist as the expert witness will be used in regards to “ethical issues of concern for psychologists who are engaged in personality assessment in forensic settings such as for courts or attorneys” (Knapp, & VandeCreek, 2001). The forensic psychologist can either be a court-appointed evaluator or an employee of an attorney (Knapp, & VandeCreek, 2001). Since attorneys hire these psychologists, due to attorney-client privileges the attorney can pick and choose what information will be provided to the court of law. The ethical role of a forensic psychologist as an expert witness is just about the same as a regular psychologist.