It is a cell self-digestive, lysosomal degradation pathway. Recently accumulating documentation has emphasize the selective elimination by autophagy of unwanted components like aberrant protein aggregates, lipid droplets, dysfunctional organelles and invading pathogens. There is some evidence in certain setting that pharmacologic or generic inhibition of autophagy can prevent cell death. Autophagy is complicated in various aspects of cell physiology, and its regulatory mechanism is associated with a range of diseases. The regulation of autophagy is complicated, and the process must be properly modulated to maintain cellular
The principle of chemotherapy is that by using of chemotherapeutic agents or drugs, cancer cells can be removed. These drugs or chemotherapeutic agents act at the cancer cells and controlled the process of cell mitosis but they can produce toxicity.1 1.2 Cell Cycle The series of events in which one cell undergoes in process of division and accomplished in an individual called cell cycle. There are number of phases in cell
One of the great challenges of systems biology is to translate and summarize this vast amount of information in so-called regulatory networks that can be simulated in computational models . The long-term goal is to be able to simulate and ultimately predict the responses of cells and organism to a changing environment. In order to construct regulatory networks, the system can be divided into three organizational levels. The lowest level is represented by the interactions of one single element (transcription factor) with its target DNA promoter . This interaction can either activate or repress the expression of the downstream gene(s).
Also, SNP’s (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) and other genetic mutations like insertion or deletion in the hENT1 transporter gene( hENT1 transporter is responsible for ara-C uptake by cells) changes the amino acid sequences in genes which in turn affects the structure and function of the gene. This can lead to toxic adverse effects on the
IDH is a cytosolic enzyme which occurs in three isoforms. The enzyme catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of Isocitrate producing alpha-ketoglutaric acid and carbon dioxide. This step of citric acid cycle is an irreversible step and hence it is carefully regulated to avoid unnecessary depletion of isocitrate. Specific mutations of IDH1 and IDH2 have been found in many cancer cells such as gliomal cancers, astrocytomas and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). These mutations produce (D)-2- hydroxyglutarate from alpha-ketoglutarate.
Another application of gene therapy involves the inclusion of different function to the cells, in order to either fight cancer or other diseases. The main target for gene therapy in the early days includes inherited diseases that are caused by single gene defects, for example cystic fibrosis (1). Gene therapy can either be performed by the direct transfer of genes or by the usage of living
Two common ways of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are pluripotent stem cell induction and somatic-cell nuclear transfer. Ethics of human cloning has become serious issue in recent years. Many ethical arguments against human cloning are because of misunderstanding. Most of the people think that these clones will have the same personalities as the person cloned but actually although the clone and cloned individual have the same genes, their characteristics and traits will be different. Human cloning is ethical because it helps in medical field, cures infertility and makes advancement in science.
This leaves us with concerns about whether these processes are ethically correct and whether it is appropriate to use these organisms as a means of producing things such as pharmaceuticals. Through editing an organism’s DNA that organism can adapt a new trait. By changing the genotype of the organism, the physical outward appearance —or its phenotype—can also be altered. Under the correct circumstances, a new gene can be added into the DNA of a cell; this gene will be transcribed and translated into an amino acid string. Scientists use this type of technology to produce things like antibodies, insulin and
The functions of immune cells are varied and alter when intracellular changes in metabolic pathways occur. Understanding the correlations between metabolic pathways and phenotype of immune response is important; it is the configuration of these metabolic pathways that facilitate the cells fate decisions and effector functions. The ability to manipulate the intracellular mechanisms within these metabolic pathways (re-configuring them), can enable immune system cells to mount an immune response in a ‘pre-programmed’ manor, which can ‘switch’ the cells fate and work effectively to fight pathogens, or, to ‘repair’ defective immune cell mechanisms which fail to protect the host. This is a rapidly developing area of research which is assisting the development of targeted
Then, animal biotechnology is that animals can be used as "bioreactors" to produce important medical proteins such as antibodies (Thieman & Palladino, 2013). It also utilizes as model organisms for the basic research as gene "knockout" experiment which disrupt a gene to observe what functions are affected. Next, forensic biotechnology is the study of DNA fingerprinting which detects a unique DNA pattern to convict criminals. It also uses in paternity cases, tracking, and confirming the spread of the organisms such as tuberculosis and E.coli (Thieman & Palladino, 2013). Bioremediation is the process of using biotechnology to clean up environment pollution, which causes of industrial progress.