Climate[change | change source] The Arctic Ocean is in a polar climate. Winters are characterized by the polar night, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies. The temperature of the surface of the Arctic Ocean is fairly constant, near the freezing point of seawater. Arctic Ocean consists of saltwater but its salinity is less than other oceans. The temperature must reach −1.8 °C (28.8 °F) before freezing occurs.
In today’s world, Earth is getting warmer every year. With each year going by, scientists have more data to prove global warming is becoming more of a threat. The greenhouse effect and pollution is contributing to the temperature rise and is causing the polar ice caps to melt. A side effect of the melting, the water will flow into the oceans causing sea levels to rise and putting coastal cities in danger. As global temperatures and sea levels rise, there is only so much humans can do to slow down the process and to maybe even make it stop as a whole.
Antarctica and it’s role in the Global Climate System The Climate of the world is made up of numerous collaborating sub-atmosphere frameworks. This paper will talk about the impact of Antarctica and its encompassing waters on each of these sub-climatic frameworks. The frameworks include: the environment, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere. The impact that Antarctica and its encompassing waters have on the atmosphere framework, as we know is connected to a fragile offset of Antarctic conditions. Cool surface temperatures and the solid Coriolis effect at high scopes make the South Polar Cell, which depicts climate designs all through Southern Australia, America, and Africa.
This is due to the thinning observed at glacier snouts. For information, global sea level are currently rising at rate about 3 mm per year, Davies (2014). Hence, the amount of higher sea level will not only depends on the glacier recession, temperature and warming of the ocean but also the dynamic behaviour of West Antartic Ice Sheet. It receives high snowfall and also contribute high tendency to melt, which receive more number of days above 0℃ during summer months. Due to high temperature and thinning glacier, it will become thin and easy to diminish which make more easier to float.
The shrinking of sea ice in the arctic and the melting of glaciers suggest that global warming is on surge! As glaciers are melting the sea level has risen drastically. Alaska’s permafrost is thawing and this has led to an increase in the level of water causing the region to sink. Erratic weather conditions have become a common scenario
There are many other species that are affected by it too. However, the species that are worst affected by glaciers melting are the species whose habitats are in cold and ice-covered regions. For this reason, polar bears and Antarctic penguins are in threatening situation because polar bears feed themselves by eating seals and other prey that they hunt on the ice and in the water. But now, their lives are threatened as the ice on which they need to hunt and feed is melting and they need to go somewhere else to find their food. (Bell) Krill are a major food source for penguins.
Although the increase of near-surface atmospheric temperature is the measure of global warming often reported in the popular press, most of the additional energy stored in the climate system since 1970 has gone into the oceans. The rest has melted ice and warmed the continents and atmosphere. Many of the observed changes since the 1950s are unprecedented over tens to thousands of years. Future climate change and associated impacts will differ from region to region around the globe. Anticipated effects include warming global temperature, rising sea levels, changing precipitation, and expansion of deserts in the subtropics.
A simple rise or fall in general temperature can have large effect on precipitation patterns and the frequency of storms. The rise in the sea level, which has been accounted for and is constantly rising has been result of the melting of ice and glaciers. It was predicted that throughout the 21st century the temperature of the surface of the Earth will rise base on their lowest emissions predictions. According to the predictions in year 2100, different locations will experience different levels of increases in temperature, with the greatest impact toward the North Pole and the least increase toward the South Pole and in the tropics, for example the New England 's temperature is projected to increase by 6 to 10 degrees
The Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the world because the shiny snow and ice is reflecting more of the sun’s energy but as the ice and snow disappears, the water and rock are absorbing the heat and this is known as the albedo effect. As the glaciers, snow and ice melt, sea levels will rise which can cause erosion and destroy habitats. Also, the Arctic habitat hosts many species itself, such as polar bears, arctic foxes, and walruses. Without these land masses, hunting, mating and resting are harder to do which results in the species dying out. There are also many droughts that are occurring which affects many species including humans.
It does however rise because of global temperature changes just like global sea-level rise. However, tectonic activities have an impact on relative sea-level changes and an absolute change in sea-level isn’t necessarily needed in order for the sea to rise to a level relative to the land. Bird (2008) explains that it is difficult to establish how relative sea-level rise has occurred. Bird (2008) explains that it is often extremely difficult to establish if relative sea level (RSL) has been caused by ‘an actual rise or fall in the level of the sea’ or possible a combination of both. These changes in the land are called tectonic movements.