The European colonies have played an important role in moulding the African social, economic and cultural existence. Imperialism is considered as the source of colonization and post colonialism in the history of the African nations. Imperialism emerges out as a strong hold in most the colonized nations before Europeans has come to the colonized countries. Imperialism, Colonialism and Post colonialism are the most frequently used terminology of the last centuries. The task of the writers is to present the realistic approach of the ruler and exploitation of the native black African
“Turning and turning in the widening gyre The falcon cannot hear the falconer; Things fall apart; the center cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world.” --- W. B. Yeats, “The Second Coming”. Imperialism is the action of one country forcefully gains and keeps control over another territory. European imperialists were motivated to charge into Africa because of 3 main factors: economic, political, and social(Vontz, “imperialism”). With the rise of industrialization there was an increase of social problems in Europe. The rate of poverty and homelessness created a need for more economic opportunities.
Unsurprisingly, forcibly removing someone from their homes and enslaving them to work on another continent, if they did not die on the dangerous trip there, does not foster peaceful relationships. This tension, built upon hostilities over colonization, and other poor treatment of African people, has helped contribute to the violence in Africa in the past. Furthermore, it is clear Europeans, and in turn, Americans, have always had a superiority complex towards Africans. This would lead to views of Africans as being inferior, which can lead to ideas of them being less civilized, and more dangerous. This compounds on the actual violence in Africa, and results in the world viewing the entire continent as violent and
Lastly, when European empires touch foot in Africa to gain the many resources this continent provided, it created acts of genocide. In 1884, the Berlin conference took place, dividing Africa into the hands of several different empires. Countries such as Rwanda took a turn with the empires powers. The Indigenous groups of Rwanda, which were the Hutus and Tutsis were peaceful till Germany took hold of the country. During the time Germany had power over Rwanda, they gave the Tutsis higher status and the key position.
Once the British realized the detrimental effects of the slave trade a ubiquitous effort began on the behalf Africa. The three main directions that these efforts took were the establishment of colonies of freed slaves, the faltering of the slave trade, and finally the missionary endeavors in Africa. Booth states that all three of these resulted in the large participation of blacks in establishing Christianity in west Africa. One of the main arguments used to support the colonization was that Africans can best evangelize Africa. This claim was supported by the European’s difficulty in surviving from malaria, resulted in a place for blacks in the early days of missionaries in Africa.
Hunger is the sensation of desiring food. Hunger refers to people suffering from food insufficiency. Hunger is a big problem but can be solved. In the South Africa, many people die every year due to hunger. The percentage of hunger in South Africa is very high, and this problem is not solved till now.
In the 1870's, Europe developed an interest in colonizing Africa. There were many factors that may have caused this, one of them were believing in Social Darwinism, which is the belief that different types of people also apply to Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection, another being the competition between owning land, which would mean more power, and the need for resources, which Africa had plenty of. European imperialism started in the 1870's, when Africa started being colonized by w. The other countries began to notice with, wanting more power, they began to colonize in Africa as well. Due to Europe dividing up Africa, the countries set up an an agreement known as the "rule of occupation" which was a law that required the country that wanted to colonize a certain area to show the paperwork to justify their action. By 1914, nearly all of Africa was owned be Europe, the only independent countries left were Ethiopia and Liberia.
3.1 THE COLONIAL LEGACY ON THE AFRICA’S UNDERDEVELOPMENT From the 16th century to 1921, 84 % of the earth had been under the sphere of influences of colonial powers. After World War I, there were around 168 colonies (Chiriyankandath, 2007) European colonization of Africa has had serious negative consequences for development, which over rides any purported differences in rule style. Colonialism has had a very negative, constraining effect on development in general. The impact of colonialism on the African continent is certainly relevant in characterizing postcolonial states and conflicts. Colonialism has permanent geographical, cultural, and financial legacies.
Europe’s imperial ambition that resulted in many deaths, corrupted states, famines and genocides During approximately the 1860’s the competitive Western Nations were in desperate need of domination and therefore started the expansion of their territories overseas. On account of the fact that they finally gained the essential privileges and advantages for a “successful” colonisation, for instance steamships, weapons and quinine medicine, they decided to place their countries’ individual interests in front of the importance of several nations’ futures. In the end of the 19th century (in 1870s) more than 10% of the African territory, mostly around the coastal lines, was controlled by the power-hungry colonial powers who saw this domination as a symbol of prestige and authority of their own nation. Less than 30 years later the possessions of European countries in Africa have already made as much as 90,4% of the continent. The Imperialistic division of the African continent was The scramble of Africa, committed by the Western Countries.
From the understanding of the empowerment theory, one can see its positive relevance to South Africa’s decolonization and Africanization process. This can be so in that, a critical analysis on pre 1994 South Africa shows that the Republic was under white colonial rule of the National Party which sort to increase patterns of colonial discrimination of the Black South Africans through the devolution of political structures and the promotion of a putative independence in the African reserves Laura (2012). Race also played a pivotal role during this colonial period. The White rule was characterized by installation of oppression, denial of opportunities and poverty on the black majority based on belief in biological racial difference and hierarchy. This exemplifies the notion of oppression, discrimination and powerlessness suffered by the marginalized individuals and groups in some societies as argued by the empowerment theory.