The term “classroom discourse,” refers to all forms of discourse that take place in the classroom and encompasses the linguistic as well as the nonlinguistic elements of discourse. The former includes the language used by the teacher and the learners, as well as teacher–learner and learner–learner interactions. The latter includes paralinguistic gestures, prosody, and silence—all of which are integral parts of the discourse. The linguistic and nonlinguistic elements constitute the observable dimension of classroom discourse. Studies have explored factors that play a critical role in shaping classroom discourse.
Language used in classroom discourse is different in form and function from language used in other situations because of particular social roles learners and teachers have in classrooms and the type of activities they do there. Discourse is the organization of language beyond the level of sentence and the individual speaking turn, whereby meaning is negotiated in the process of interaction (Carter & Nunan, 2001). There are many approaches to study classroom discourse and every researcher in this field has his or her arguments on what is the best way to analyze discourse in the classroom context. However, there does exist some consensus among the scholars; it all started with discourse analysis (DA) and the IRF pattern. Classroom discourse analysis is an aspect of classroom process
Even in context where it is harder to see future purpose for English language communication among schoolchildren , it is often nevertheless thought to be sensible to build potential for this . A brief review of statements form syllabus specification and introduction to course books will demonstrate the extent to which communicative ability has become a goal and communicative practice has become part of classroom procedure . The implications for the communicative classroom; the communicative approach to language teaching is premised on the belief that , if the development of communicative language ability is the goal of classroom learning , then communicative practice must be part of the process . not everyone would agree with this 'product implies process ' argument .t . there are certainly successful language learner , not least among English language teacher , who have come through An English Language Training curriculum where the focus has been on a study of the formal system of English and where classroom practice has been less than interactive .
WHAT ARE ENGLISH TEACHER DISCOURSE PATTERNS IN THE CLASSROOM? The teacher’s discourse is a powerful tool for the construction of knowledge. Most of the teachers agree about the educator´s role of using the language in order to develop oral communication. However, one could argue that there is often little to no target language spoken in the language classroom by students. On the other hand, there are certain discourses that normally prevail in teaching situations.
COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS L2: AN OVERVIEW ABSTRACT: In the long history of language learning, especially in the case of learning English as L2, educationalists have been tirelessly trying to explore more and more practical approaches that ranged from conventional methods like Grammar translation method, Direct method, Situational Language Teaching etc., to the latest mode of communicative approach. The conventional teaching methods - the unsuccessful result of the earlier language theories, were proved to be ineffective, because it was felt in all the methods, that the learners were passive and the teaching-learning process was mechanical. Hence during the 1960s, a new trend of language teaching called Communicative Language
Nonetheless, it seems safe to say that although language as a program of interaction is not exclusively individual, individual language nevertheless has exclusive features. Humans sequence together distinct signs and models of grammar to build an unlimited set of never-before observed, believed, read, or finalized phrases. Babies who have not yet been taught grammar type their own rules of language by using their language ability together with feedback from the conversation community into which they are
That is to say, interactional and transactional nature of communication should be practiced during classroom speaking. The former “includes both establishing and maintaining social relationships”, the latter “involves communicating to get something done” (Bailey, 2003: 56). For example, it seems incredibly valuable that asking learners many follow-up questions has great potential to show learners that someone (in this case - teacher) is interested in them and establishing positive relationships is totally possible. In turn, learners’ ability to achieve transactionality in communication can be increased with the use of
Since the approaches discussed in the first part rely heavily on social interacting and social representations, a reflection is required on the ways in which values are negotiated and agreed upon. The discussion of sensitive matters such as gender discrimination in teacher training is a first step towards ensuring a healthy social environment within the learning group. Even in the context of the language learning discourses are socially constructed, which is something that bears an influence not only on the oral and written production of learners, but also the very social dynamic of the class. The chapter that discusses this aspect, which can be broadly referred to as the politics of language teaching, is followed by another that examines teachers’ attitudes and needs towards innovation by means of the analysis of the results of a survey conducted both in Europe and the US on how teachers value the latest methods and approaches in language teaching and on the ways in which ICT has been used in the context of TBLT. This part of the book is rounded off by two studies targeting pre service teacher students and examining their prospects of professional development.
Language has a central role in the development of intellectual, social, and emotional learners. It supports the success in learning all fields of study. Learning the language is expected to help learners to know theirs, their culture, and other cultures. In addition, learning language also helps learners are able to express ideas and feelings, participate in society, and use analytical and imaginative ability that was in theirs. According to Crystal (2001: 1) said that English is a global language.
Language is a system of communication. It is a process of exchanging messages and creating meanings. There are four steps in which language can be described; the first one is to share and to understand, the second step is to converse, the third is to collaborate that is thinking, planning and making decisions and the last is the co-creation which is the joint activity, making and doing it together. Metaphorically, we call language as ‘communication’. This communication is not really limited to only words and the combination of words into sentences.