As seen in Table 1, interest, relevance, expectancy and satisfaction are the main factors of course-specific motivation in learning situation level. Moreover, affiliative motive, authority type and direct socialization of motivation by modelling, task-presentation and feedback are the key elements of the teacher-specific component. The last component of learning situation level is group-specific motivation and this component mainly focuses on the factors such as integrative or instrumental goal-orientedness, norm and reward system referring to intrinsic or extrinsic, group cohesiveness and classroom goal structure. Dörnyei (1996) stated that three levels of motivation, language level, learner level and learning situation levels may have an influence on each other. As mentioned before, a noticeable point is that Dörnyei emphasized that instrumental motivation is also needed to be considered in language learning process.
Motivation is a standout amongst the most vital components of language acquisition, particularly in L2 learning. Goal-oriented acquisition used to dominate the debates about the motivation theory of L2 in terms of social psychology. Language learners would be classified as either integratively-or instrumentally-oriented (Gardner & Lambert, 1972) to achieve a needed proficiency in L2 use for identification with a specific ethnolinguistic group or for pragmatic gains. For the last ten years, when clarifying the inward identification course in self-concept of learners to invigorate inspiration for L2 capability, this theoretical center has moved to a novel domain of self and identity. Internal yearnings to some sort of linguistic, cultural, individual,
Always keep in mind when communicating as an interaction with another person, it is not only what you say, but how you say it (Bethel, 2012). Then you must take into consideration, even though you may have chosen your words carefully and poised your delivery did the other person interpret your thoughts and feelings correctly? You may have heard a saying, “there is nothing like an understanding” and it
According to Went & Turner, 2014, there are also different traditions and contexts in communication where it helps us to break down difficulty when we attempt to understand communication theory and their process. Many people have doubt the purpose of studying communication theory. What do we actually learn from communication theory? According to International Association of Communication Activists (IACACT) (n.d.), one of the importance of understanding communication theory is to cultivate critical thinking skills. Critical thinking skills are important as it shows the perspectives of our thinking and knowledge we have.
The word, “communication” has been highlighted in Western countries such as English, French and Scottish during seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Simonson, Peck, Craig & Jackson, 2013). In addition, scholars have come out with several communication models such as the linear communication model by Shannon and Weaver in 1949, the interactional model of communication by Schramm in 1954 and the transactional model of communication by Barnlund in 1970 (West & Turner, 2011). As such, the scenario has shown that communication as a result of ideology since long ago. Apart from that, philosophers for instance John Locke has defined communication as a process that used to interpret and express the ideas to someone through written language. As he mentioned in his work, Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) that “words are used for recording and communicating our thoughts” (Locke, 1959; Simonson et al., 2013).
Willingness to communicate is the most basic orientation towards the communication. Almost anyone is likely to respond to a direct question, but many would not continue or initiate interaction. McCroskey and Baer (1985) defined willingness to communicate as a stable tendency towards the communication, given the choice. It is considered to be of paramount importance to the realm of language teaching, due to its realization as the final intention to the initiation of the communication. The primacy of WTC lies in the fact that it partly arises from the role it plays in the interaction which undoubtedly leads to the development.
The aim is to identify problematic situations or issues considered by the participants to be worthy of investigation in order to bring about critically informed changes in practice. Reflective practice, in this respect, is widely believed to play a key role, the burgeoning literature in this subject area (Hannay et al., 2003; Norton, 2009) acknowledges this process for achieving both long-term and short term objectives. Short-term objectives are closely oriented toward developing teaching and learning through a combination of several steps such as the identification of problems, change initiation, collaboration with the learners and staff. Long-term objectives are basically related to professional
Speaking is a process of how speaker constructs meaning which includes creating and receiving information on an interactive way (Brown, 1994). The meaning and the form are delivered to the hearer depending on the context which also includes the participants, physical environment, and purposes for the speaking. Speaking is used to show someone 's feelings, thoughts, and even ideas to other people (Herman, 2016). Speaking is also one of the most important skills which should be supported by some components such as grammar competence, vocabulary mastery, and good pronunciation (Ur, 1996). In speaking, one of the components that should be mastered is pronunciation.
Symbol is one of the most important elements of any language since it serves to communicate without the need of a verbal response. According to the book, " A symbol may be defined as a thing the value or meaning of which is bestowed upon by those who use it" (34). This happens because it is immediately recognized and the one who as a public observes it must know its meaning in order to understand what it refers to. The symbol is an important element of communication between human beings. When we talk about communication we are referring to the act whereby two people exchange ideas or thoughts, but for that to be achieved, both people involved in the act of communication must understand what each of the words or terms that are used refer to.