The Acquisition-Learning distinction is crucial because it gives an argument opposing the effortful labor of learning a new language in adults. Krashen (1988) explained that there are two independent ways in which a second language performance can be regarded. The first is the acquired system and is the product of a mind process, a subconscious one that is very similar to the one that happens with children when acquiring their native/mother tongue. This process requires continuous interaction with the target language. On the other hand, Krashen (1988) also explained that the learned system is the result of a very formal way of learning a language that involves the conscious process of being knowledgeable about a language.
Compare to the time it takes in adults’ language learning, it is widely believed that children acquire their first language at a much higher speed. There have been a lot of researches concerning this topic. For example, White (2003) discussed about the theoretical problem of first language acquisition from the perspective of universal grammar; Krashen (1982) has proposed five hypothesis concerning principles and practices on the topic of second language acquisition. In order to analyze this topic, it is appropriate to start with children’s first language acquisition. By the comparison and analysis first language acquisition process, we may discover the features of language acquisition as well as the factors that affect the process.
Introduction Communication is not about a field of knowledge to understanding the meaning of channel or convey the message, but it is about science social. In other word, communication can define as one activity that we do in our life likes spend time together with other people, sharing the ideas, opinion and think with society (Mansor Ahmad Saman, 1984). Some differences in meanings reflect our unique experiences in relationships and in life (Wood, 1998). Of all the knowledge and skills that we have, communication is the most important and useful. Whether in your personal, or social life, communication will continue to be your most vital asset.
Language acquisition In An introduction to language, (Sixth Edition p. 319) Linguistic aptitude develops in stages. These stages are different from one another. There are different stages of language development a child goes through in order to acquire language. Phonological development is the first stage followed by lexical development and syntactic development. The Phonological stage can start at six months and can be a very difficult process for infants to go through and difficult for us adults to grasp or understand.
Research Questions From the literature review, it was established that there were several factors affecting language learning and acquisition. More specifically, it was revealed that factors such as exposure at an early age, motivation, attitudes, incentives and educational system can influence language acquisition. However, most of the research were conducted in the west and were focused on students as subjects to the study and foreigners working in the country where they need to learn the language to lengthen their range of employment opportunity. As the AEC is fast approaching, it was rationalized that it is beneficial to know the English language readiness of the Thai people, especially those directly working with English speaking ASEAN
Even if genetically we are designed to acquire a language, the communication with people sharing the same language’s characteristics is essential. This interaction’s crucial role would explain the obvious nurture importance in the process of acquiring a language. Many linguists have defended the importance of the environment and experiences in the acquisition of a language. Piaget argued that language is not the direct result of an innate characteristic but a capacity related to cognitive development. There are many social and linguistic factors which determine the development of this process.
Language Acquisition “Natural language constitutes one of the most complex aspects of human cognition, yet children already have a good grasp of their native language before they can tie their shoes or ride a bicycle”. ……… said that: The relative simplicity of acqui-sition proposes that when a tyke makes an "estimate" about the structure of dialect on the premise of clearly constrained proof, the tyke has an uncanny propensity to figure right. This firmly proposes there must be a cozy relationship between the components by which the kid secures and forms dialect and the structure. (p)(3) “Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences
Despite the fact that the child is still acquiring aspects of his or her native language through the later years of childhood, it is normally assumed that, by the age of five, the child has completed the greater part of the basic language acquisition process. According to some, the child is then in a good position to start learning a second ( or foreign) language. In this chapter, I am really interest about the child's language acquisition from the first months of life until growing up. The child's language acquisition is clearly broken down by grade level also same by age. And I also understand that the deaf children are due to the inaudible can not hear the sound around.
This is an important aspect of language learning, thus also of second language learning. According to Verspoor, Lowie and De Bot (2009), language acquisition cannot happen without input. If one already knows a language then proficiency can decline when it is not used, and even a first language can be forgotten (Verspoor et al., 2009, p. 71). Hence as input of English is essential to start of English learning and developing it, it is also of major importance for maintaining proficiency. According to Vanpatten (2009) SLA is a slow process with sometimes incomplete results, because to make sense of a sentence “does not mean that all formal aspects contained in the utterance are fodder for acquisition” (p. 49).
Language is a system of communication. It is a process of exchanging messages and creating meanings. There are four steps in which language can be described; the first one is to share and to understand, the second step is to converse, the third is to collaborate that is thinking, planning and making decisions and the last is the co-creation which is the joint activity, making and doing it together. Metaphorically, we call language as ‘communication’. This communication is not really limited to only words and the combination of words into sentences.