Critical Thinking In Education

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Critical thinking has root in philosophy, psychology and education (1). It is one of the most important concepts involved in education (2), so that one of the main goals of modern education is to cultivate individuals who know what they learn and why they learn (3). This approach to learning was supported by cognitive, metacognitive and constructivism theories. From the cognitive perspective, learners are active processors of information in their learning process and they search information for solving their problems. Metacognitive approaches also support cultivating and strengthening critical thinking in education process. According to this approach, learners should have an active monitoring on their mental processes and set and repair their…show more content…
Critical thinking, as the ability to engage in purposeful self-regulatory judgment (8), and problem solving are highly related. Some believe that problem solving is a sub-category of critical thinking, while others argue that these two concepts have overlapping, but critical thinking is a cognitive process that problem solving and decision making are output and outcome of it (9). In fact, problem solving is a behavioral-cognitive and innovative process that provide effective strategies for routine problems. In addition, problem solving is an important coping strategy that increase personal capability and decrease stress. Therefore, critical thinking and problem solving are important skills that should be though in any educational system…show more content…
Cassidy and Long 's Problem Solving Questionnaire: This questionnaire that was developed by Cassidy and Long 's (1996), has 24 items and measures 6 factors (helplessness, control of problem solving, creative problem solving styles, confidence in solution of the problem, Avoidance style, and approach style). Each factor has 4 items. The score range of the scale was 0 to 24. In Persian version of the questionnaire, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was reported 0.77 and 0.74 (15-16). In this research, reliability coefficient of the questionnaire using Cronbach’s alpha was 0.75.
Rosenberg self-esteem scale: This scale that was developed by Rosenberg (1982), has 10 items and assesses positive and negative self-esteem. The score range of the scale was -10 to +10. In Persian version of the scale, reliability coefficient using Cronbach’s alpha, test-retest and split-half respectively reported 0.69, 0.78 and 0.68 (17). In another research, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.84 (18). In present research, reliability coefficient of the scale using Cronbach’s alpha was 0.77.
Data analysis
Data analysis was performed by the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and SPSS ver. 20.0; the significance level of α=0.05 was considered for

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