The results will be improved attention to detail, increased comprehension and prolonged problem solving skills. One way to challenge learners in the classroom is through the use of Bloom’s Taxonomy. According to Heather Coffey (2004), Bloom’s Taxonomy can be used across grade levels and content areas. By using Bloom’s Taxonomy in the classroom, teachers can evaluate learners on multiple learning outcomes. Within each level of the taxonomy, there are a number of tasks that move learners through the thought
In the most general sense, it usually means encouraging students to use active techniques (experiments, real-world problem solving) to create more knowledge and then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how their understanding is changing. The teacher makes sure she understands the students' preexisting conceptions, and guides the activity to address them and then build on them. Dialogic teaching Dialogic teaching harnesses the power of talk to stimulate and extend students’ thinking, and advance their learning and understanding (Alexander 2010). The term ‘dialogic teaching’ is now in regular use but like all such terms means different things to different people. As developed by Robin Alexander since the early 2000s, dialogic teaching harnesses the power of talk to stimulate and extend students’ thinking and advance their learning and understanding.
The Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA2) is a formal assessment designed to assess students in Kindergarten through eighth grade. It provides educators with two different kits, K-3 and 4-8, to use for assessment. The K-3 kit is used with students in primary grades to observe, document, and assess reading skills over time. This assessment yields students’ information about reading engagement, oral reading fluency, and comprehension through the administration of this assessment. The DRA2 provides formative information about student’s independent and instructional reading level, which will better inform the teacher in the areas in which helps to inform areas of instruction that would be beneficial.
And also encourage pupils to become more motivated to take greater task for their own learning and participate in class discussion. In addition, those who work in teams scored advanced on a test assessing critical think when compared with pupils who studied individually. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the cooperative learning on academic performance of the intermediate pupils. For this study, the researcher focused on the intermediate pupils of which it includes the grade IV, V, VI pupils of Saint Michael College of Caraga. The researcher suggests that cooperative learning, in spite of the pressure it should be promoted by the teacher and educational administrators as it can stimulate; pupils motivation, develop pupils possible and critical ability, which are all important of pupils academic
Playing games in the classroom can considerably increase students' ability in using target language because they have the opportunity to use it with a purpose and in the situation provided (Mubasalat, 2012). Hadfeild (1990) confirms that "Games as much concentrated practice as a traditional drill and more importantly, they provide an opportunity for real communication, albeit within artificially defined limits, and thus constitute a bridge between classroom and the real world. In this way "students have an opportunity to drill and practice using grammatical rules and other functions." (Mubasalat, 2012 p.6). Consequently, students learn the target language the way they acquire their mother tongue (Fitzarld,
Classes where students have opportunities to communicate with each other help students effectively construct their knowledge (Brooks, 1993). So, learning is an interactive process in which the learner develops his or her own understanding by assembling facts, experiences, and practices. In addition, interaction is closely linked to successful learning as interacting with others can help students clarify the concepts, improve problem-solving, and enhance retention. Furthermore, increasing students’ opportunity to talk with one another and discuss their ideas increases their ability and to argue their opinions persuasively and respectfully (Weber et. al., 2008).
In fact, students in schools are able to make new friends, which is a good thing to motivate and help each other. For instance, classroom environment plays a vital role in making students work in pairs or in a group to share ideas and feel the challenge. This motivates students to work harder on themselves, learn faster and prepare to be active members. Working with classmates improves the communication skill of the students (Lawson, 2003). For example, discussing an argumentative topic in the classroom can allow students to practice communication skills and learn from each other.
2. The Advantages of Treffinger Learning Model The advantages of applying Treffinger learning model according to Huda (2013: p. 320) are as follows: a. Make the students more active in learning and have confidence to speak their ideas. b. Develop students' thinking skills because it presented a problem in the early learning and provide flexibility to students to find their own solutions.
One obvious way to do this is, by developing students’ communicative competence through collaborative activities in the target language, the use of authentic texts, and incorporating personal experiences into language lessons (Nunan, 1991). A Communicative Teaching Approach (CLT) considers how students’ best learn language, the strategies and tools that facilitate this learning, and the roles of the teacher and the learners in the classroom (Pan, 2013). For example, teacher can give task to the students and ask them to complete the task in a group which means they need to communicate and discuss with each other in completing the task given. This kind of task is supporting Vygotsky’s theory when he stated that one essential feature of learning suggested is the zone of proximal development (ZPD) where students play an integral role in learning by interacting and collaborating with peers. “Once these processes are internalized, they become part of the child’s independent developmental achievement” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 90).
One of the most effective teaching tools to assess and stimulate critical thinking is questioning. Questions are mostly used to generate the recall of previous knowledge, but effective questioning lead to advance student learning and engender discussions. The use of questioning is more effective when the students are actively involved in the learning process. One important technique to realize this is divergent questions. “we relied mostly on divergent questions based on the information from literature which states that these questions encourage critical thinking and reasoning in addition to increased participation” (Cruickshank, 2009,p.372).