Two of the early influences on deliberative democracy are John Rawls and Jurgen Habermas. The use of reason in securing the framework for a just political society was advocated by Rawls. According to Habermas, a fair procedure and clear communication can produce legitimate and consensual decisions by citizens, thus making the outcomes legitimate. Deliberative democracy, in the simplest term, refers to a conception of democratic government that secures a central place for reasoned discussion in political life. The political decisions should be the product of fair and reasonable and debate among citizens.
Direct democracy is all the power places in the hands of individual. When a political decisions must be made, all members of a polity stick together and individually have a vote. Representative democracy is to set up a medium political actor between the individual and the policy outputs of the state. Through the election, people are elected and assigned with the task of making decisions on behalf of the group of citizens that they represent. Democracy in Malaysia Malaysia is a federation of 13 states which is operating within a constitutional monarchy under the Westminster parliamentary system and also known as a representative democracy.
Democracy is a political system which, at its core, enshrines the public sovereignty through the representative mechanism. In democracy, political representation by popular vote is a source of the political legitimacy on which the government practice the state power. As always, we have learnt about “power tends to corrupt, absolute power corrupts absolutely” , say Lord Acton , we , in democracies , need to set up control mechanism over usage of power . On the other hand, the government can do nothing for the people without having considerable powers such as taxation, law makings, law enforcement and probing social and political issues and the likes . In concept of Democracy, the power must be limited and put under “check and balance” mechanism.
Franz Milagroso 9/13/14 Popular Sovereignty The concept of Popular Sovereignty had developed throughout the existence of American democracy. Since America’s formation of it’s government it has always believed in the power and responsibility of the government. The first three words of the Constitution, “We the People”, establishes that America is a sovereign nation and that the people are the ones with the power in the country. It establishes that in order for the government to govern the governed must give the consent first. The concept of American democracy is centered on the idea of Popular Sovereignty.
As a form of government it often describes a process of voting, on elections or referendums, through which laws are passed, representing the entire populace (Biorseth, 2013). This direct democracy or majority rule, as described above, is only capable of representing a very small population; and to the framers of the American Constitution, looked very similar to mob rule. To avoid this direct democracy, or “tyranny of majority” as they called it, Americas founding fathers decided on a Constitutional Republic, and as designed, was meant to put
This can project the people from anything they would disagree to occur. Democracy is based on the rule of equality which means that all the people are equal as far as the law is concerned. Every person has the right to enjoy and experience social, political and economic rights and state is not allowed to discriminate him on the standard of gender, class, property or religion. When there are fixed and elected representative a more responsible government is formed. People under this type of system can discuss matters and problems thoroughly to come up with sensible decision.
Representative democracy is preferable because it allows freedom and voice of the people. Representative Democracy Defined Representative democracy is similar to democracy however, it allows elected citizens to represent others in a government process. It provides governance through freedom and equality through consensus among the people. Representative democracy is defined by Wilson, Dilulio, Bose, and Levendusky as a government in which leaders make decisions by winning a competitive struggle for the popular vote. This form of government has less control of the people, allowing them to have the freedom to join clubs, organizations, political parties, and other groups of their choice.
Democracy has long been considered by the modern society as one of the universal values and it has been used as a legitimate decision making method. According to Habermas in Three Normative Models of Democracy (Habermas, 1994), democracy is the institutionalization of the public use of reason jointly exercised by autonomous citizens. Deliberation needs to be freed of power imbalances in order to reach normative consensus based on rationality and equal participation. It is claimed that the goal of deliberate democracy is to achieve a just social order whereas a just social order is the social order which each individual and institution is constrained from committing unjust acts. This essay will argue that, in fact deliberate democracy is not a necessary condition for a just social order.
In another word Direct democracy, which is a form of government that all citizens decide policy by voting, had first applied in ancient Greece in the 5th century BC. At that period, democracy was not absolute “democracy”; women, foreigner and slaves had no right to participate in politics. Due to the modern-era, this circumstance got a bit of change. All the citizens in Switzerland had no restriction to vote. They vote on any politics issues from the smallest to the biggest in harmony.
A democracy is a government for the people, by the people. It gives everyone in the country an individual say in the government. According to text 6, the number of democracies has gone from only 2, to nearly 100 in 200 years. The democratic system of government has been the most successful in history. It gives everyone involved, a reason to be happy because they feel like they are being heard.