Another distinction which has had a strong impact on the study of culture is the understanding of culture as practice or culture as a system of symbols and meanings. As Hall stresses, culture is about meaning and as such “permeates all of society.” Representations, practices, values and identities have cultural meanings that are discursively constructed and tap into previous cultural discourses to be meaningful. Critical intercultural communication casts light on ways in which meanings echo cultural knowledge and are therefore difficult to identify and question – even for researchers themselves, hence a strong emphasis placed on reflexivity. The importance of “cultural resonance” has also been pointed out by scholars examining media
Metaphors are used as strategic tools of persuasion, which influences the uncritical readers understanding of reality. CDA as an analytical tool has a very broad spectre, though the tools used for this study are adapted from Fowlers book Language in the News (1991). Fowler (1991) recommends using appropriate linguistic tools to analyse, and referring to relevant historical and social context, can bring ideology, normally hidden through habitualisation of discourse, to the surface for analysis (p. 89). As mentioned CDA is a broad spectre of tools that can be used to analyse though the essential ones for this paper are brought forward
There is such a variety of definitions regarding discourse that make it difficult to stick to one definition, therefore the context to which discourse is used is helpful to narrowing down a less diverse definition. Michel Foucault (philosopher, social theorist and literary critic) used various definitions of discourse at separate instances. The rough definition that Foucault suggests for Discourse is ‘the general domain of all statements’. He also defines discourse as an adapted cluster of statements, which could relate to the distinct structures in discourse. Discourse has to do with distinguishing groups of statements which are controlled in a way that they match and reach a mutual effect.
It is difficult to simplify media ethics, since the issues that arise from the different media may be contradictory in nature. What makes sense and looks good for a branch of the media could cross the lines ethical if it applies on the other. In addition, technological advances have actually created much more ethical dilemmas for the media that have removed you. All companies and creators of media have to walk an increasingly fine line to serve the public and to remain morally sound. For television and film producers, ethical dilemmas come what kind of entertainment they bring to the public.
Idea that our thought processes are predominantly metaphorical appeared in the work of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson (1988). Their main goal was to prove that the language we use mirrors human experience and observations organized by use of the metaphors; one of the well-known examples of this theory is “Argument is a war” metaphorical concept. What is more, each culture may apply different concepts while speaking, which therefore impedes understanding of a conversation for non-native speakers of certain language. In fact, human beings are not aware of ample usage of such concepts; our metaphorical way of thinking seems to be as natural as breathing. Conceptual metaphors help us understand primarily abstract
It begins with a literature review which aims to establish comprehensive parameters to analyze the case. 1.1.1. The concept of Power: Result from the debates As many researchers argue, power might be one of the most interesting concepts in the social sciences. This is not only because power is contested and arguable in terms of its definition but also because power can be viewed from different disciplines. The conflict among scholars
The Importance of Media Studies and How to Do It In this era of globalisation and technological advancement, one may find themselves swimming –indeed, perhaps even drowning—in media and its products. An individual is confronted with varying media in their daily life, from billboards advertising the latest blockbuster to newspaper articles criticizing a politician. It is essential for one to study media, for the understanding and shaping of one’s self and personality, as well as one’s surroundings and society. There are two key philosophical approaches in the study of media: the American approach, and the European approach, with no hard and fast methodology in both principles (McKee, 2016). Media studies plays an important role in teaching one to understand and shape one’s surroundings.
This aspect is evident when G.M. Turner in his book, Stylistics, says that, “It is difficult to describe the distinguishing characteristics of written language because the less important ones are obvious and the more important ones subtle.” He adds on to say that, “Writing brings together people who would otherwise have no contact, making a reality of large cohesive political units and giving them a historical dimension longer and more exact than an oral tradition can maintain.” It is for these reasons that the researcher aims to consider the two variants of the visible (written)
One of the biggest dis-advantages of it is of the case selection and confirmation bias. Researchers choose the cases which they want to study and one which is of their interest. And secondly, the confirmation bias even has a very damaging effect which occurs because when both dependent and independent variables change as the case hypotheses want them to and any contradicting theory is being discarded. Another major dis-advantage of case studies is that is does not represent a wider population and that it lacks representativeness. Case studies usually examine why some events occurred and what were the mechanisms through which thy occurred.
This is due to the fact that the cases are analysed as a sequence where A leads to B (Sekhon, 2004: 288). On the other hand is a disadvantage of comparative case studies that the entire focus is on a single cause only, which doesn't provide answers if there are possibly more explaining variables (Mahoney, 2007: 135). Furthermore is it less transparent and formalized than the other two methods I will discuss; qualitative comparative and statistical analysis. Comparative case studies are harder to replicate due to their very nature of being unique cases (Blatter & Haverland, 2012: 67; Benoît Rihoux & Ragin, 2009: 14). Which is also the cause for the last disadvantages; uniqueness of the cases leads to a lower degree of generalization of any conclusions drawn in comparison to statistical analysis (Blatter & Haverland, 2012: