According to the convention of biological diversity "Biological diversity means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems” The important question however, is can we put a value on biodiversity? The total value in many ways is infinite. Earth’s economies “would grind to a halt, without the services of ecological life-support systems” (Costanza et al 97). According to Freeman. (1998) to understand the true value of something, one must first define what that thing is and what the world would possibly be like without that particular entity.
Scientists have long assumed that the physical structure and condition of stream and river channels have pervasive effects on biological communities and processes (Hynes, 1970; Allan, 1995). Channel geomorphology also establishes relationship between benthic communities in different ways. Spindler, Patrice conducted a study of associations of stream channel morphology and macroinvertebrates. Significant taxa differences between tributary streams and large rivers were identified, with the greatest taxa richness occurring in tributary streams and shifts in species to more tolerant taxa in the larger rivers. The macroinvertebrate community responds to substrate parameters such as particle size and embeddedness, which directly affect benthic habitat.
1995, Kunin and Lawton 1996, Schwartz et al. 2000, Hector et al. 2001b, Minns et al. 2001, Sax and Gaines 2003). These explanations are persuasive in their own right, but ecologists have increased some additional to deal with, like what would be the resultant of alteration of biodiversity on ecosystem properties, such as productivity, carbon storage, hydrology, and nutrient cycling?
They contain networks of a variety of animals that range from the largest mammals to the smallest insects. Alongside those animals, plants, fungi, and various microorganisms also tie into the ecosystem. Each one of these living organisms interact and affect one another. each ecosystem has a hierarchy to separate the animals into predators and prey to allow them to cull certain species off and not allow them to over populate causing damage to each other animals lifestyle and possibly habitats. Everything in nature works in a delicate balance.
1. Introduction 1.1 Background Biodiversity is the term used to encompass the variety of all living organisms on Earth, including their genetic diversity, species diversity and the diversity of ecosystems. Biodiversity plays an important role in ecosystem functions, which provide supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural services. The services that humans derive from ecosystems include food, fuel, clothing, structural materials, medicines and genetic resources. The depletion of biodiversity will have profound consequences for the functioning of ecosystem services.
For example, plants can climb on fences or walls. This is called response to the environment. Movement toward a stimulus is considered a positive response, while movement away from a stimulus is a negative response. Another property of life is reproduction, which is all living things reproduce their own kind by duplicating their DNA. When this occurs, genes containing DNA are passed along to an organism offspring.
However, we know little about the extent of the evolutionary conservation of the molecular networks that determine salinity tolerance. Many genes are up-regulated during the response to salinity and are suspected to be involved in the physiological mechanisms of salinity tolerance. The products of stress-inducible genes can be organized into two groups: those that directly protect plants against environmental stresses and those that regulate signal transduction and gene expression in the stress response (Hasegawa et al. 2000 ) . Therefore, it is important to analyse the functions of these genes, not only to understand the molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance and the responses of higher plants but also to improve the stress tolerance of
Biodiversity refers to variability among the living organisms which are existing and interacting in various terrestrial, marine system during the specific timeframe within an ecosystem (Altieri, 999; UN, 2015; Kumar, 2015). Generally, biodiversity consists of three major components such as species diversity, genetic diversity, and ecosystem diversity which have a significant role in the entire ecosystem (Rawat & Agarwal, 2015; Kumar, 2015). Furthermore, biodiversity is different forms of life on earth which consist of different species organisms. It is promoting the aesthetic value of the natural environment and support to life system by providing food, fodder, fuel, medicine, and timber etc. but unfortunately human activities cause of global warming, catastrophe, soil degradation, and habitat loss which is an alarming threat to species and ecosystem diversity (Rawat & Agarwal, 2015).
The physical variable involves how saturated is the soil and oxygen and water availability. The last variables that was discussed is the biotic variable; this includes the plants (sensitive to hydrology), algae ( nutritional and energy recycling) & diatoms ( siliceous cell walls provide a timeline for the wetland), amphibians ( essential link between the wetland and surrounding land) and birds( connect spatial wetland habitat). All these groups of variables are essential in determining the ecological status of a wetland. Reddam house its own wetland that also supports various species of
Internally the administrators shape the administration and they are themselves a product of their culture, technology and environment and polity and the same set of factors impact it externally through systems and processes. The ecological approach states that organisations and their purposes exist in an interdependent substance. An ecological approach to public administration is based on understanding the interrelationship between the administration and everything that forms its environment. For example the interaction among the environmental factors (climate, flora, fauna, and topography), people (their knowledge and skills) and technology (physical and social) makes human existence possible. So understanding this factor and locating the functions of the government in this context will amount to having an ecological approach to public administration.