The first aim of education is to perpetuate the functioning of the society. Society is made up of men. And men take on their meaning as well as their fulfilment and pleasure, by participating in society. The way to prepare the individual to lead the meaningful adult life with in society is to provide him with the skill which will allow him to be constructively active within the social
By analyzing the goodness or evil human nature, they all points out that the only way to become virtuous and morally, or even further, sages, continuous self-cultivation and education are required, in order to enrich the knowledge, also sense of humaneness. These suggestions are coming from their analyses about human nature, which demonstrating the original idea about governing of Confucianism – self-cultivation as the root of regulating all social organizations. Not only the intention of education, but also the emphasizing about the learning environment shows the similarity between Mencius and Hsün Tzu. They both mentioned about the importance of influencing the impact of education by their circumstances. “Yi Chiu (奕秋), who is a master on playing chess in the country.
Man himself cannot create values because they are the essence. In order to achieve all these values man must use his capacities to the fullest and in this way he can achieve the highest form of spirituality and will also be able to explore his self. J.S Rose stated “Goodness, truth and beauty are seen to be absolute each existing in its own right and entirely desirable in itself”. Idealism lays a lot of emphasis on the importance on education. Idealists believed that each and every individual should be given equal opportunities and should be provided proper environment to recognize their potentials to develop their personalities
Culture is, indeed, the higher learning. But, this higher learning is not acquired at universities; rather, it is assimilated continuously from earliest infancy when human beings first begin to trust in those familiar responses others make to their overtures. “culture must communicate ideals, setting as internalities those distinctions between right actions and wrong that unite men and permit them the fundamental pleasure of agreement” The secret to the vitality of culture is its historical continuity and communication. Culture originates in an organic form from its sources, and national self-interest exists in maintaining secular national consciousness from generation to generation. Philip Rieff aims in developing adequate sociological theory by analyzing cultural change.
For Hobbes, social contract is an inevitable process because men need a central power for self-preservation (Hobbes 39). He cannot protect himself from outside dangers; therefore, he needs sovereign power for survival. Nevertheless, for Rousseau, social contract is needed, but it unavoidably creates inequality as well as peace and order. If men were more just and fair in his actions, social contract would be more beneficial to his life. In his natural state, men was more caring and cooperative, but with social contract, he is more individualistic and greedy (Bondanella 16).
Reading goes a long way in life, providing the reader with experiences of life and training him/her to lead a meaningful life. Bill Beattie, one of the famous authors and writers believes that education should teach us how to think, rather than telling us what to think. Eric Hoffer, an American social writer, believes in the main purpose of education being the implanting of a will and facility to learn. He believes that the purpose of education is to produce learning individuals and not necessarily learned ones. Bishop Creighton, on similar lines states that education should aim at creating people who continually ask questions.
The journey of self-enlightenment is an unending process; nowadays, instead of ignoring the problem, one is encouraged to reflect upon himself and learn from his mistake. Both Confucius and St. Augustine embrace this philosophy and use their mistakes as a pedestal to improve themselves and attain the highest understanding. The concept of self-reflection is an essential part of Confucius and Saint Augustine’s path to enlightenment, their different education background and life philosophies have created very different processes of how one would attain self-improvement: While Confucius has an idea of how a virtuous man should be and one should follow the three virtues to reach enlightenment, Saint Augustine is unclear about his path to God, as he is a man of rhetoric and felt the need to understand God before committing himself to Christianity. Confucius regards education as the only way to self-improvement and morality; he believes that if one were willing to learn, he will naturally find the way and become a virtuous man. It is Confucius’s desire to obtain The Way, which leads him onto the journey of seeking wisdom.
As a result, Equality is faced with conflicts, internally and externally. By doing so, he captures his freedom from the detrimental and contagious dictatorship. As Equality begins the stage of curiosity and the idea of learning at a young age, he is forced to conform to societal rules and regulations, not being more intelligent than his brothers, as they are equal. The first struggle that is against him is the power of education and learning. He
Family institution or household cannot be abolished because that is where root or the source of happiness to achieve in the end; where human beings have their mind relaxed, quality time is spent and interaction with family members. Family institution trains men to be a rational being. It is due to our natural instinct is insperable. Family as claimed by Plato as the source of destruction. However, Aristotle totally against it by saying, family is where the good things are trained or the cause of all causes.
School administrators using Theory X would seek to control the actions of both teachers and students, discourage participation, and work according to book, leaving little or no room for individual initiative. The proposition of theory Y are directly opposed to those of theory X. Its assumptions of man are positive. They are as follows: (1) Physical and mental work are as natural as play and man will enjoy work providing it is satisfying. (2) Man will exercise self-direction and control in achieving the organizations goals if he is committed to them.
However, everything can not be solved with a peace treaty. Many issues are resolved by contention. Hsun Tzu said,” a man must be transformed by the instructions of a teacher…the man’s nature is evil, and that his goodness is the result of conscious activity.” This quote means that mankind must actively and willingly participate in the laws
Coats mentions we must “move from the classroom as the locus of instructional delivery, to the student as the focus of instructional attainment.” His opinion, by this, is that focusing on individual students’ needs instead of engaging them in a full classroom is the best solution- using other means than instructional delivery is not only okay but appropriate. Rosenblum opposes this by saying we “internalize an ethos of caution.” He believes that instead of catering to the individual student, forcing them to learn different methods is a better way to go. Their points are strongly made, but contrast dramatically. According to both men, their methods have been applied successfully. Clearly, they believe that their approaches benefit the students.