The substance of our very being is memory, our way of living is retaining reminders; articulating memory is our raison d’etre. The concept of ‘memory’ has often been deployed as a framework within which attention can be drawn to ‘hidden’ or ‘occluded’ aspects of the past, which are deemed of special importance to the (re)construction of identities of particular communities. Cultural memory is a concept introduced to the national academic disciplines by Jan Assmann and Aleida Assmann, who, in their seminal essay “Collective Memory and Cultural Identity” (1995) define it as “a collective concept for all knowledge that directs behaviour and experience in the interactive framework of a society and one that obtains through generations
Energies are engaged to systematically develop theory, but the two approaches to the research task is different. The qualitative researcher's emphasis is on the construction of the theory to agree with data, and the quantitative researcher's emphasis is on the testing of the theory to prove. The difference in approach may, in part, be due to the differences in the phenomena being studied, and the questions asked and the techniques considered appropriate for confirming or refuting the conjecture (Morse, 1996). Qualitative research requires methodological versatility; researchers have to create the knowledge fitting their research group through any of numerous strategies that depends on design, and therefore have an extensive knowledge of social science theory, to interact competently with others, and persistently focus on objective, and single-mindedly commit to research. He/she, the researcher must constantly distinguish between another's world and that of the participant researcher, and yet become close enough to the lives of another that it be both experienced and analyzed
He was of the opinion that a person has a time frame to pass through a specific stage; the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and the genital stage. If they do not overcome each stage, they become fixated to that stage, resulting in unresolved issues in their adult life. His theory has paved the way for other theory such as attachment, and according to Bowlby this attachment is a strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate companion (Sigelman & Rider, 2012). Charles Darwin contributed to the development of attachment theory. He was a naturalist and during his many voyage he came to his theory of evolution.
Before going in detail of the above important paradigms of research, it is very necessary to have a look on the word “paradigm”. “A paradigm is a pattern, method or system on which a researcher thinks and precedes his/ her research”. According to Rossman & Rollis “paradigm is shared understanding of reality”. It’s a way of thinking and observing. Everyone has his / her own way of observing and interpreting.
“Recent thinking in anthropology defines material culture as an ‘event’ or ‘effect’ that emerges from the performance of material things, bodies and spaces” (Kim 2017:194). Material culture shapes the way that we live today and has a huge role in our social lives. This essay will explore what material culture is, how is can be used, and how it can form and identify identities and culture. Material culture helps us understand our social life by looking at physical evidence to determine certain cultural and identity traits of individuals or groups of people in the past and present in order to interpret our own lives. What is Material Culture?
In the context of social research, reflexivity at its most immediately obvious level refers to the ways in which the products of research are affected by the personnel and process of doing research. These effects are to be found in all phases of the research process from initial selection of topic to final reporting of results. While relevant for social research in general, issues of reflexivity are particularly salient for ethnographic research in which the involvement of the researchers in the society and culture of those being studied is particularly close. In the process of ethnography not only the personal history of ethnographers but also the disciplinary and broader sociocultural circumstances under which they work have a profound effect on which topics and peoples are selected for study. Moreover, the relationship between ethnographers and informants in the field, which form the bases of subsequent theorizing and conclusions, are expressed through social interaction in which the ethnographer participates, thus ethnographers help to construct the observation that become their data.
An individual in the wider spectrum of the society defines himself by his specific identity as it plays a major role in the thoughts, actions and orientation of a particular individual existing in both the public and the private life. It can be defined as the ‘condition of sameness’ with other individuals and something that would continue over time and space. This essay explores the construction of identity, in particular religious identity. I would take the case of Sikhism and its construction over the years and the way in which the identity has been changed by reinterpreting the religious ideals. I would start from the origin of the religion providing details about its rituals and ideals.
Basically, the qualitative research methods help, in our case geographers, to develop new hypotheses and territorial patterns. One of the most commonly used methods the geographers use is the semi-structured interview (Kitchin and Tate, 2000, p. 213). Semi-structured interviews make the transition from
d) Socialization is the lifetime process by which human behavior is shaped through knowledge in social institutes (e.g. : family, which is a crucial factor in primary socialization). Through socialization, individual learns the values, norms (formal and informal rules), and principles of a given society. In seeing nature of the self, it is essential to include a still more important social scientific issues- the extent to which human beings are being formed by biological inheritance (i.e., genetic determinism), or through socialization (i.e. cultural determinism), the issue called nature-nurture argument.
Since ancient times, linguists one generation after another have tried to explore some aspects of the language, thus a number of linguistic genres have come to be established. To sum up, there are two major traditions of modern linguistics: Philological Tradition and Anthropological Tradition. Since F· Boas and E·Sapir in the early 1900s, linguists have come to emphasize the social attributes of human language that language and its social environment are inseparable, and hence language must be seen as a social linguistic science and also be studied in its social and cultural environment. Anthropological Tradition leads to the emergence and rise of Ethnolinguistic. From the perspective of culture to examine the process of language communication, linguists have found that both the language system and the culture system are involved in human