Ningtas (2015) mentioned that in prediction phase students are encouraged to use context clues and set up the purpose of reading. Moreover, prediction serves as a way for the students to involve in the text and develop interested in the text. 2.8.4 Promote active comprehension Directed reading thinking activity promotes active comprehension by encouraging students to think critically about the text. This strategy is carried out in different phases. Lowe (2006) stated DRTA as a metacognition strategy that teaches students to set a purpose for reading as they develop their thinking processes.
A learning theory incorporates principles which aim at explaining changes in human performance, providing a set of instructional strategies, tactics, techniques to select from and the foundation for how and when to choose and integrate the strategies5. Learning theories offer insights into “what promotes learning effectiveness and how students learn”. Learning theories are based on principles that can guide effective teaching practice and facilitate deep versus surface learning”. Thus, to have the disposition that is required to be acquired by the learner, curriculum designers need to consider relevant and appropriate learning theories during curriculum design and implementation. The more learning theories are integrated in the curriculum design process; the more likely learners can be accommodated within the programme.
This essay will critically discuss Process Writing and Working in Genres when teaching writing to young children. Process Writing is critical in the Foundation Phase as it gives students the tools in which they are able to break the process of writing, which often can be daunting, into more manageable portions which will allow them to produce quality material. Barnett (1992, p. 17) asks an important question (of what a successful composition created by a student is) and has answered it so accurately: “What happens if we-look at each piece of writing as one version in a progression toward the expression of the student 's ideas? To do so is to regard writing as an expression of the mental process it entails and as a means of communication.” Thus, Barnett (1992) so correctly views successful composition in the Process Writing as collaboration between the writer, the text, and the reader. By regarding writing as a process, it permits students to understand writing as a succession of drafts and to consider the endeavor of writing in its entirety: planning, drafting, revising, editing and publishing (Barnett, 1992).
The steps that this approach takes can be as follows; situation, purpose, tenor/field/mode, planning, drafting, publishing. Firstly, the situation is where the teacher should try to replicate (as close as possible) the situation that students are expected to write about. Followed by the purpose of the writing, learners must understand the reason why they are writing what they are writing. To what end will it be used for. Next, the terms tenor, field and mode are discussed.
When it comes to EFL students, the difficulty of reading becomes even more complicated. The readers must be aware of the implicit and explicit data that is being transferred. In fact, being able to read competently is one of the most important skills that we need to have in today's world. 3.1. Genre-based
Perhaps from a student’s perspective, especially the first year student, writing may instead be a laborious and even a dreaded exercise of attempting to place thoughts on paper while developing mastery over the rules of writing, such as spelling, citation format and grammar. It helps the student to live out the academic culture, which involves the ability of the student to demonstrate at a higher level, their understanding, and interpretation of knowledge and information of a specific discipline as well as the implications thereof. Therefore due to the actuality that a student is assessed based on the quality of their academic writing papers that they produce , it is thus
The aim of the research was to find out the motivational factors which develop students writing skill at secondary level. Many researches which are somehow related to research topic which were done to find out how students motivate towards or develop their writing skill. Below are some of the previous researches made by anonymous researchers. “The development of children’s writing from early forms to conventional forms is best achieved through substantial time devoted to writing” (Egawa, 2008, ¶4). Through this statement, Egawa
Writing is one of the four major skills in English, which has to be mastered by the students. Writing classified as one of productive skills which enables students to be creative in producing the ideas related to the topic that they are asked to write. On the other hand, the students should produce the language in written form as a means of communication between the writers and the reader. In writing, students are free to express their ideas, thoughts, feelings, opinions, beliefs, arguments, information, or even their experience into a written form. It can be such a way for the writer to convey the messages to the readers in order to make the readers know what the writer is trying to share.
According to Nuttal (1996) on aims of reading, for extensive reading, variety is also important. Students need to read different variety of reading materials. This may include different forms discourse structures, genre, subject matter or materials- magazines, newspapers, tabloid, journals, readers, abridged readers, young adult readers, novels, etc. Teachers can exploit the extensive reading materials to introduce or revise new vocabulary, tenses and sentence structures by exposing the student to the English language in a varied memorable, familiar and of course enjoyable manner. Learning English through extensive reading materials can be the foundation for secondary schools in terms of basic language functions and structures, vocabulary, language learning skills and literature.
As foreign language learners, college students are really expected to master the four major skills of English: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Those skills need to be developed by students because each of them has its significance and importance. Therefore, acquiring those skills have to be balanced. Students must be competent in English not only in the oral skills, but also in the written skills. The focus of this research is writing skill.