MDG 1 – Targets include: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Where are we? According to the Millennium Development Goals Report 2013, the world has reached the poverty reduction target five years ahead of schedule. In developing regions, the proportion of people living on less than USD $1.25 a day fell from 47 per cent in 1990 to 22 per cent in 2010. Extreme poverty is also falling in every region. Nevertheless, the gender gap in employment persists, with a 24.8 percentage point difference between
By realigning the organizational design, the company was able to increase the organization's information processing capacity. The article did denote that there was a cost implication, "From OIPT we derive that besides the benefits of information processing, inter-departmental collaboration absorbs much time and resources because it makes it necessary to integrate different forms of expertise and problem-solving approaches" (Cuijpers, et al., 2011, p. 567). Though there was a cost increase, Cuijpers et al. (2011) did determine OIPT is important for process and should be implemented at the managerial level. "In order to boost performance, managers need to provide infrastructure and resources for inter-departmental collaboration" (Cuijpers et al., 2011, p.
to move towards higher value added activities in the GVCs and to best derive benefits from GVC participation. The literature proposes governments (OECD 2007, 2008), the business community, and international organizations to facilitate (SME) participation in GVCs through policies, practices and targeted support programmes including: o policies for improving business environment (well designed structural policies, competition, international trade and investment, financial markets, labour market, education and internationalization policies) o target support programmes (access to finance, information, consultation, etc) o collective action and co-operation (supporting industry groupings, promoting clusters and networks – especially where there is a potential in knowledge-intensive and export-oriented market segments and for supporting R&D for continuous innovation) o promoting the capacity for innovation by local SMEs (supporting skills development, upgrading products and processes, internationalisation, ICT implementation) o enhancing SMEs value obtained from intellectual assets and intellectual property (providing guidance, financial and legal instruments to adopt IP rights developed in universities and research centres, facilitating filing the patents by
However, in the case of new growth opportunities present, the equity issuance will be a way to go since the firm will have a high value in response to the growth of the firm because of which higher finance would be generated by the firm. So, in deciding between equity issuance or debt financing, businesses will look in to the nature and the situation it is expected to be in. The pros and cons will be determined and the option most suitable on the basis of the information viable will be opted for by the firms. No sure short answer is present as to whether equity is better or debt
Higher education may not be fruitful all the way without inducing R&D environment. The importance of R&D is understood as also endorsed by endogenous economic growth theory and knowledge based economy phenomenon. The contribution of R&D in economic growth of a country is manifested mainly by developed countries while developing countries are trying hard to groom in innovative products and services through investment in R&D for sustainable economic growth. R&D, innovation and knowledge workers are elementary indicators for the economic growth by becoming knowledge based economy (Raspe & Van Oort,
“Developing countries’ one third of national income comes from the informal sector. The informal sector reduces the unemployment problems” The third world countries - especially those of Asia and Africa - are under the rapid transition phase and marked by rapid population growth. Hence, such countries face dual problems of economic development and sustaining such large populations. The size of the informal sector in developing countries excluding the agricultural employment ranges roughly between one-fifth and four-fifths and in terms of its contribution to GDP. The informal economy accounts for between 25 percent and 40 percent of annual output in developing countries of Asia and Africa.
By 2010, it had fallen 0.507 – an substantial drop. This was largely due to the rise of Asia – and primarily China – as a global superpower. In the same timeframe, China’s GDP per capita rose from 271.6 to 4560.5 , and Africa experienced a similar – though reduced – period of per capita GDP growth, driven by lowering birthrates and increasing economic growth. By comparing this growth to that of developed countries, the value of this data becomes apparent. Between 2000 and 2010, Sub-Saharan Africa has maintained a per capita GDP growth rate higher than North American for all but one year, and Europe for every single year.
Poverty is still a major issue in most developing countries particularly those in Sub-Sahran Africa and South Asian countries, the past century has seen more advances in global prosperity and more people have come out of poverty than in all of human history. Standards of living have also improved. Infant mortality rates globally have been cut in half during 1970-1997, from 107 to 56 per thousand; and life expectancy has risen from 55 years to 67 years.Like many other developing countries, Pakistan has also made significant efforts to integrate its economy with rest of the world through foreign trade and investment. The Government of Pakistan adopted a strategy for poverty reduction in 2001, focusing on five areas which include i) accelerating
Also, the opportunities and attributes possessed by ASEAN member countries that would resulted in better outcome with the establishment of the integration itself. ASEAN is a region that its average growth in GDP since 1970’s outpaced every other region in the world, with poverty rate that decreased 11% in span of 13 years. Not to mention market opportunity as middle class rise significantly, predicted to reach 125 million in 2025,that ensures a healthy consumptions, as well as productions to keep the economic engine pumping. With almost 10% of the total world population resides in the region that mostly in demographic bonus phase, would guarantee an unending reserve for human resources (Skyperman, 2016; Pooittiwong & Ramirez, 2016). ASEAN GDP accounted for US$ 2.4 trillion and projected to be ranked fourth globally in 2020 and since 1990’s the growth is attained from productivity as manufacturing, transportation, among other sectors are growing in efficiency.