Vrikshayurveda suggested that tree planting is one of the means to attain the four broad aim of life i.e. dharma, artha, kama and moksha which indicated the importance of trees in the holistic development of mankind and the use of crop production for sustainable agriculture (Sadhale
The importance of rainforests to mankind and the man-made threats faced by rainforests. Rainforests are thick and luxuriant evergreen forests, which are continuously growing new leaves to replace older ones. They are found in areas with high rainfall and high temperatures throughout the year. Tropical rainforests act as water catchment areas. When rain falls in rainforests, the trees stop it from reaching the ground directly.
There has been lots of researches and studies done on the mycorrhizal fungi to determine its role in establishing plant communities. Mycorrhizal fungi are known to aid in protecting the seedling of host plant roots against the harmful effects such as pathogens and heavy metals. Fungi are also involved in the mycorrhizal symbiosis, nevertheless it is also affecting the multiplicity of interactions, in which it will influence the composition of fungal assemblages and then the colonization of co-occurring plant. Moreover, it may affects the host species, resource availability as well as the plant life history stage. Recent researches have proved that mycorrhizal fungi causes the positive interactions with the plant communities and may affect the structure of plant communities.
The supply of photosynthates to the microbiota associated with the roots plays an important role in rhizosphere formation and functioning, but AM colonization can be responsible for biological imbalance in the rhizosphere (Amora-Lazcano and Azcón, 1997; Amora-Lazcano et al., 1998; Schreiner et al., 1997). This may be due to the presence of AM mycelium that release energy rich organic compounds and positively affect the presence of inoculated microorganisms (Andrade et al., 1998). Conversely, Christensen and Jacobsen (1993) reported that the amount of plant root-derived organic matter which is available for microbial growth decreased due to the presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi. This conflicting approach is due to the result of colonization of AM that changes many aspects of plant physiology, according to the conditions (Smith et al., 1994), and also makes modifications in the surrounding root
This being said it can reduce its ability to recover natural disasters or human damage.There are three levels of biodiversity that are interrelated; ecosystem, species, genetic. Ecosystem diversity is the variety of ecosystems within a region(e.g. forests, deserts, coral reefs and lakes.) This is needed for a healthy Earth because it supports all forms of life; water and air filtration, healthy soil, and control pests. Destruction leads to
Silviculture is one of the skill in managing the establishment and composition of the forests area, growing of the trees and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. This kind of silviculture also focused on the important of doing the treatment of forest stands which are needed in preservation and the productivity of the forests will be upgraded, so that it can be more in good condition than usual. But, in generally, silviculture is known as science and art of growing and tending forest crops. This silviculture will be applied at the stand level to some of the distinct between forestry and silviculture. In other side, silviculture is to forestry as agronomy where to agriculture in that is concerned with the technology of growing vegetation and also an
Approximately 50% of the tree biomass is carbon. The reasons for importance of forests in carbon sequestration is that trees fixes and stores carbon through photosynthesis and continue to store until they are harvested. They store carbon in soil. Finally trees are one of the alternatives to increase forest cover which will widen the area of carbon sink. Raising forest plantations give benefits to the farmers and shall provide tangible and intangible benefits and also farmers will get additional income through carbon credit
In forest management and decision making, there is a continuous need for high quality information on forest and the state of forest resources can be monitored by a form of map. Forest maps are effective tool for identifying the state of forest resources and monitoring ongoing spatial process in forested landscapes. One of the most important forest properties is the canopy cover and it provides habitats for many animal species (Panta 2003) and is essential to environmental and economic health, providing additional cooling, increasing property values, improving air/water quality, and contributing to a more beautiful, friendlier and livable community (Panta 2006). Monitoring of forest canopy cover is an essential tool for sustainable management of natural resources. Forest canopy density mapping is one of the most useful parameter to consider in the planning and implementation of afforestation and reforestation programs (Biradar et al.
The science and art of creating, managing, with conservation, and repairment of forests and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs and values for human and environment benefits is designated as Forestry. This is practiced in plantations of trees and natural stands. Forestry involves multiple-use management, required for sustainability in the supply of timber, fuel wood, wildlife habitat, natural water quality management, recreation, landscape and community protection, employment, aesthetically appealing landscapes, biodiversity management, watershed management, erosion control, and preserving forests as 'sinks ' for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Therefore, it is essential for foresters for efficient management of a forest and enhancing forest