The second model of gender, which I call “categorical theory”, treats women and men as pre-formed categories. This approach often appeals, explicitly or implicitly, to the biological difference of the sexes as the explanation of social behaviour. The focus is on some relation between the categories, which is external to their constitution as categories. This is, for instance, the logical structure underlying most discussion of equal employment opportunity. It is also found in much of the discussion of sexual harassment and gender violence.
Throughout the course of history, society uses gender as an organizational tool to classify humans into two basic categories: male and female. This creates a gender binary with socially constructed norms that design a rigid guide as to how each gender must act and perform in their daily lives. Gender is a social construct and not inherent in our genes. As gender theorist Judith Butler claims, “Gender is the repeated stylization of the body, a set of repeated acts within a highly regulatory frame that congeal over time to produce the appearance of substance.” In other words, society is performing a role of gender every day that gives off an impression of male or female through our own repetitive performance of gender. Gender performance roles create and uphold societal norms, discourse, and the foundation upon which children are being raised in the patriarchy.
“Doing” gender is an option. Structural-functionalist Theory- Each sex has a role to play in the interdependent groups and institutions of society. As societies organize, roles and relationships change. Complimentary roles are necessary for efficiency in society. Conflict Theory- By keeping women in subordinate roles, men ensure that they control the means of production and protect their privileges.
ICESI UNIVERSITY LANGUAGE AND CULTURE PROFESSOR: RAMÓN VERSAGE JUAN DAVID CABALLERO GENDER AND LANGUAGE: THOUGH PIECE It is remarkable how gendered language affects perceptions in our society. This phenomenon has been a research topic for many years. Sociolinguistics have shown interest in describing the differences in language use between women and men, and studies of the cultural roles ascribed to gender. This paper gender of language of Holmes and Meyerhoff aims at explaining the distinction between language and gender and how language supports, enforces, and maintains attitudes about gender in general and women in particular. Before starting off, it is of utmost importance to make a distinction between gender and sex to gain a better
Gender Studies is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the multifaceted interaction of gender with other identity markers for example race, ethnicity, sexuality, nation, and religion. Femininity and masculinity are such a basic form of social organization that the operation often passes unnoticed. Feminist scholarship shows that traditional categories used for social analysis and their associated interpretive approaches frequently reinforce gender hierarchies and inequalities Interdisciplinary study came forth in reaction to the partial answers to social problems provided by the disciplines. This looks at concepts of gender and power, gender and the body, and gender and knowledge through a sequence of topics such as freedom and liberty, social movements, work with leisure, politics of social justice in addition to sexual violence. We are surrounded by gender tradition from the time we are young.
Archer (2004) distinguished twoprincipal theories to explain gender differences in aggression: the social role theory and the sexual selection theory.Social role theory concentrates on the course of socialization and gender roles indeveloping sex differences in aggressive behavior (Eagly, Wood, &Diekman, 2000). Social role theory (Eagly, 1987) argues that the societal division of workgenerates stereotypical gender roles that confine women intodomestic roles that stress nurturing and compassionwhereas men are considered to be “breadwinner” (Archer,2009, p. 252) that encourage dominance andcompetition (Eagly,Johannesen-Schmidt, & Van Engen,., 2003).As a result, social roletheory assumes that the sex difference in violent behavior islarger the moreimbalanced and unfair societies are in respect ofwomen’s
To begin with, one of the fundamental aspects of social interaction depends on an individuals´ gender identity. By interacting with others, individuals within a society create their gender identity through their sense of dominating cultural ideology, and “it is through these interactions that one of the most fundamental divisions of society, male and female, is legitimated” (West & Zimmerman, 1987, p. 126). That is to say, society creates gender, not vice versa. This gender categorization and basic distinction between genders, children learn early on from their parents and other influencing adult figures. As a result, when children mature they take on these adopted characteristics of their societal attributes and emerge into intermediate adolescence
This paper will analyse to what extent the women in Nwapa's Efuru in general and Efuru specifically are able to make their own decisions and which limitations there are to their freedom of choice. It will explore the role of gender in the decision-making process as gender is among the main influences of decision-making in the novel. the manner in which those decisions are made. It will discuss how far the decision making abilities of women are restricted by their gender i.e. the societal limitations set to them because of their gender and which fields they wield power in.
According to the research findings, these two factors interrelate with each other in a series of ways. For example, women are culturally and biologically considered as weak beings. As weak being, they need to be protected. Men and women are equal though different people, and each of them has unique role in the society. Another is about gender and sex.
Relating this further, cultural identities are marked by a number of factors including gender, with a very locus of sustaining and projecting a difference (Clarke, 2011). Hence, taking note of the dramaturgy, Clarke (2011) further explained that “identity is…projected at the target audience in a theatrical performance that conveys self to others.” This shows that gender is also a projection to the public based on the disposition they want other people to see from the person. Gender is seen as a situated performance (Anderson et al., 2009), and gender is connected to performativity (Butler, 1990; Langellier, 1999). Performativity as explained by Langellier (1999 in Krolokke & Sorensen, 2006) “articulates a display of differences that challenges the forces of discourses and institutionalized networks of power.” The statement supports the gender and power dynamics seen in clubs as mentioned above, wherein clubbers are playing their roles based on their gender and identity while trying to challenge the institutionalized notion of how gender, identity and actions are expected from them. Based on this proposition, performativity is seen to results in negotiation, which also results to the resolution of struggle.