There are characteristics identified by Richard and Rogers (1986:71) “The primary function of language is for the interaction and communication function of language. The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses. The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse.” The Communicative Language Theory means that teaching has to be student-centered. This suits the CAPS document because (2011: 8) “Learning to use language effectively enables learners to acquire knowledge, to express their identity, feelings and ideas, to interact with others, and to manage their world. It also provides learners with a rich, powerful and deeply rooted set of images and ideas that can be used to make their world other than it is; better and clearer than it is.
This chapter describes the rationale, purpose of the study, research questions, scope and delimitations, and definition of terms of the study. 1.1 Rationale Reading is one of the most important parts in learning English. It helps students gain new experience and knowledge and engage to other societies if they are able to understand texts they are reading. However, there is a difficulty in learning language that is grammar. It is the most difficult part to comprehend texts and meaning especially a complex sentence.
The knowledge and skills that are required by learners to communicate effectively in English are closely connected and translates to the learners need for every aspect in order to achieve language competency. Young and adult learners need to acquire knowledge of specific language items, such as grammar, vocabulary, and features of particular text types. Developing an understanding of how language works in the context of communicative learning activities, while integrating themselves and ensuring that they develop both implicit and explicit knowledge of the target language. 'Implicit is the knowledge learners acquire and use unconsciously, and explicit is the knowledge that requires conscious teaching and learning. Learners acquire the system
It means that in spoken language or speaking, the vocabulary used must be very familiar and it is used in everyday conversation in order to understand the spoken discourse. Vocabulary is a basic building block of language learning. Students need to know words, their meanings, how they are spelt and how they are pronounced. Thus, when teaching vocabulary, the teachers have to make sure that they explain the meaning as well as the spelling and pronunciation. Vocabulary is the knowledge of meanings of words.
LEARNING THEORIES 2.9.1 Schema Theory Schema theory introduced by Frederic Charles Bartlett later developed by educational psychologist Anderson (2008) stated that comprehending a text requires activating an existing schema or creating a new schema that organizes the information. Schema theory proposes that people translate information about a situation based on their prior knowledge. A learners background knowledge is referred to as schema in reading literature, which includes all experiences that a reader relates to a text: life experiences, educational experiences, knowledge of how text can be organized rhetorically, knowledge of how first and second language works, knowledge on cultural background. Schema theory assumes that written text
Communicative goals are the goals of learners’ studying English language. So grammar teaching is necessary to achieve the goals. 2.1 Grammar teaching is essential According to the dictionary definition, there are at least two senses of the word grammar, study or science of, rules for, the combination words
In addition, he states that the benchmark of successful acquisition of language is almost always the demonstration of an ability to accomplish pragmatic goals through an interactive discourse with other language speakers". (Brown 2001, p 267) Reading, writing, speaking, and listening are basic communication skills necessary for effective communication in any environment. In addition, to learn the language we must take an account the four skills integration thus the teacher must know which skill complement the other skills. 3. Speaking skill and other skills: 3.1- Speaking and Listening: Through oral proficiency definition above seen there is a close relationship between speaking and listening, because a proficient speaker of English is who can respond with an interlocutor after a careful
Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) TBLT originates from Dewey’s view about the importance of experience for effective learning (Ellis, 2009) and emphasizes purposeful and functional language use by using real-life tasks in classrooms for learners to experience learning. Central to this approach is the task. Richards and Rodgers define TBLT as ‘an approach based on the use of tasks as the core unit of planning and instruction in language teaching’. It is assumed that in TBLT, the focus is on the process of doing the task, the skills and techniques involved. Communication and meaning are emphasized in the accomplishment of a task goal.
Though teachers do not teach grammar lessons separately, they rely on integrated grammar lessons. It shows that grammar is an important component of classroom teaching at the tertiary level. The grammar lesson will be effective and productive when teachers make use of language games that have an inherent motivational element. Views on Grammar Teaching It is interesting to note the views of Crystal (2004) on grammar and he mentions that it is the psychological system of rules which induces people to form, interpret the words and the sentences of their language. While discussing the importance of grammar, he says: Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves.