Identity is our sense of self, and it defines how we see and position ourselves in the world (Jackson, 2014). Through one’s developmental process, our identity which encompasses various aspects, e.g. racial, cultural, gender etc. varies. In this context, the bodily expressions and performance refer to the non-verbal attributes and behaviours of our body that we present to the outside world.
When social categories are perceived as self-relevant, they serve as identity that make up an individual’s selfconcept. Social identities (Langner, 2013) are associated with the characteristics, traits, and goals associated with a social or group role that the individual is, was, or might become a member of
Ethnocentrism is a silent problem which many people are not aware of. Some scholars have defined ethnocentrism as “the making of judgements” based on criteria of one’s cultural groups. It is characterized by applying those criteria in judging other behaviors and belief of people who may be from the different cultural backgrounds. Bennett, a founding director and CEO of the Intercultural Development Research Institute (IDR Institute), has defined ethnocentrism as “assuming that the worldview of one’s own culture is central to all reality”. He also suggested that people who has ethnocentric mindset tend to use their own worldview to interpret other’s behavior and that the idea of a “universal truth” is usually based on one’s own value.
1.2 Identity in literature Identity may be considered as the variety of personal and behavioral characteristics that describe one as a member of particular group therefore, individuals can differentiate themselves from other groups of individuals and create their own understanding of who they are depending on race, religion, culture, ethnicity and language (Fearon, 1999). On the other hand, and as a result of the geographical and social movement and the keenness of belonging to a certain social and community, individuals possibly will acquire more than a single culture (ibid). Identity in literature might be the way that is used by the authors to express themselves by presenting a new culture and language after the exile from homeland to another country hence, the genre of migrant literature has been developed to heal and tackle the migration issue and formation of green identity matter in migrants; likewise, it might be related to the use of pen names by authors trying to conceal their origins or gender and this method is usually followed by female authors hoping their works can be published and accepted within society (ibid). 2. Theories of identity 2.1 Social identity theory The study of identity forms a critical cornerstone within modern sociological thought, sociologists focused primarily on the formation of the “me,” exploring the ways in which interpersonal interactions mold an individual’s sense of self (Cerulo, 1997: 385).
Literature is incredibly diverse form of art, as it can be expressed in many different ways such as: genre, idea, execution and style of writing. Writing style is an essential part when it comes to the literature as it allows the writers to portray their unique identity through literature. The short explanation of the importance of writing style by Allen Wolfe states that "author’s style is his distinct literary manner that makes his expression of content unique from other authors. Style gives form to substance. An author’s style determines the techniques that he will employ to compose his content."
In "Dei Sepolcri", a masterpiece of Italian poetry, Ugo Foscolo said that poetry is the only thing that survives through time and because of it actions and people are remembered. I believe the same argument can be applied to media, to a certain extent. Actions and people are the main subjects of news, television shows and stories, but they are only remembered through the way media portrays them. This aspect is what makes this field so powerful and, somehow, scary. The ability media has to help, inform, shape and even hinder our society fascinates me.
The interesting side of this approach is that it confirms the importance of literature, as it is built on a literary key for the making out. Lois Tyson points out, aspects of psychoanalysis have become so embedded in our culture that terms such as “sibling rivalry, inferiority complexes, and defense mechanisms are in such common use that most of us feel we know what they mean without ever having heard them defined.” Freud himself wrote: The dream-thoughts which we first come across as we proceed with our analysis often strike us by the unusual form in which they are expressed; they are not clothed in the prosaic language usually employed by our thoughts, but are on the contrary represented symbolically by means of similes and metaphors, in images resembling those of poetic speech.” Like psychoanalysis itself, this critical endeavor seeks facts of unresolved emotions, psychological conflicts, guilt, ambivalences, and so forth within what may
In this case, Marie and Claire are the subject of this clause. As language is a tool of communication for society to interact with one another, subject can have these three functions in a sentence: the concern of the message, something that is being predicate, and the doer of the action (Matthiessen 2004, p54). The concern of the message directly point out to whom the message is addressed. In SFG, the verb is called the predicate. So the subject seen as something that is being predicate means that, for instance if you tell someone to do something, they are the assumed subject of the sentence which is a message.
Despite this there are a lot of authors striving to be heard. Since pen is mightier than a sword. We see authors from the Third World countries like Khaled Hosseni, Elif Shafak and Mohsin Hamid picking up their pens. These writers have a common aim and that is to be heard by the Western world. The themes they write about; are of impact
It created not only for entertainment but also provided some moral values, social, politicas and culture like that. So, the study of literature is very important to get the knowledge of the past and current society. People will be able to get lot of informations of the differnt ages or periods through the literature. Literature has used as a spoken form before the development tothe word form.The history of literature followes closely the development of the society. In the history of literature, the two ancient literatures are concidered the world’s oldest literatures.