The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a book written in 1905 by the German sociologist, economist and politician Max Weber. It is considered as one of the most controversial works of modern social science, and it is a book that provokes critical debates. The book was first published as a two-part article in 1904-05, in the Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik of which Weber was one of the editors. The book is translated into English by Talcott Parsons, with an introduction by Anthony Giddens. Weber considered himself as a social reformer, who sought to understand how change comes about, and specifically with the transitions to capitalism and modernity.
I. Sorel 's Radical Project Sorel was one of the most prominent figures of the French early 20th century Marxism, but he was radically opposed to the tradition of parliamentary socialism. Indeed, this disdain for parliamentarism is what he and Benjamin definitely share. In his most remarkable work, Reflections on Violence, Sorel fiercely attacks such figures as Jean Jaurès and other members of the French parliament. He views parliamentary socialism as a clear betrayal of the genuine Marxist principles, that is, of the commitment to the task of overthrowing capitalist state and economical system, instead of reforming it. Sorel 's Reflections on Violence is not a mere intellectual endeavor; rather, it is a revolutionary guideline.
The goals for Austrias revolution was based on nationalist ideas such as the want for more independence and the splitting up of the Austrian Empire. Austria wanted to get rid of their leader, Metternich, because he was the one who had been working for years to hold the empire together. Some of Austrias revolution was caused by the revolutions in France at the time. In effort to force Metternich out of power, revolts were happening in Vienna. The fighting in Vienna was mainly between Austria and France.
Perhaps one of the earliest systematic sets of theories on deviance from the functionalist perspective were launched by two prominent sociologists, Emile Durkheim and Robert King Merton (Clinard & Meier, 2008). During Durkheim’s suicide study in the nineteenth century, he first developed the concept of Anomie, which refers to a state where social norms no longer bring about social order and consequently resulting in a form of deviance—suicide (Thio, Taylor, & Schwartz, 2013). Durkheim stated that people living in times of revolution or war for instance, would experience anomie and may become deviant because rapid social change or unforeseen social situations often stop them from adhering to conventional social norms (Thio, Taylor, & Schwartz, 2013). In 1938, an American sociologist named Robert Merton translated Durkheim’s Anomie theory into Anomie-Strain theory by re-conceptualizing the original concept of anomie (Goode,
I. Introduction This paper discusses the political ideology of Thomas Hobbes, which had resulted from the civil war and its aftermath during the mid-17th-century England. Hobbes contributed his basic theoretical argument that there is no such thing as society with a collective interest, but rather a number of egoists and selfish human beings. Thomas Hobbes is assuredly one of the most controversial and frequently contested political philosophers of modern times. Although Hobbes is sometimes called the founder of the twentieth-century totalitarianism, Kleinerman believes him to be more a founder of liberalism (Kleinerman, 2006).
Adolf Hitler’s Mein Kampf is a window into anti-Semitic Nazism, into the political and social life during the third Reich of 1930 Provincial Germany, and into the aggressive methods of argumentation used by the dictator. The first section of the book, Nation and Race, aims at formulating justifications for Nazism while reflecting on anthropological theories such as extreme Ethnocentrism, biological references such as “survival of the fittest” and human intelligence, political theories of fascism, fundamentalism and nationalism. Understanding Hitler’s arguments requires knowledge about the modern historical background of Germany, of Europe as a whole, and a thorough differentiation between fascism, nazism and communism. Providing a brief overview of the text, one could depict Hitler’s thesis seeing that it is easily stated in a few of his propositions. According to him, the existence of a Superior race (which is the Aryan race) is a way of Nature, implying that Domination itself is natural and is the way of God.
For the very founder of the pacifist ideas of union between liberal-democratic states is reputed philosopher Immanuel Kant, whose theory later followed Michael Doyle pertaining authorship of democratic peace theory. (Ulrich Krotz, 2011, page 54-44) According to Doyle, who presented his view on the topic, states “liberal democracies are uniquely willing to eschew the use of force in their relations with one another.” (Andrew Linklater, 1993, page
Question 1 The first part of this essay will discuss the optimism of liberals about human progress, cooperation and peace by giving reasons and examples of that optimism. Furthermore, this paper will look at how and why liberal arguments are invalid by providing examples. The essay will further deliberate the liberal’s view on conflict and the causes thereof. The type of actors in the theoretical explanation for conflict in the international system will also be discussed. Liberalism, along with realism, is one of the main schools of thought in international relations.According to liberals, international relations is not only controlled by the relationship between states but also includes and emphasises the role of other actors.
However, as Heywood simply puts, an ideology may be understood as a “coherent set of ideas which provides, the basis for organised political action, whether this is intended to preserve, modify or overthrow the existing system of power” (Heywood, 2012). In this essay I will attempt to explore fully what ideology is, its role in society and its importance. In completing this task I will look to a number of prominent ideologies and the influence they have had in building societies. I will begin my essay by discussing the Marxist view of what ideology is, and also the non-Marxist view of ideology, so as to understand the different perspectives relating to the ambiguous term. Following this I will look at how ideology often interlinks with both religion and politics.
Approved the price for shores or asset of the public enterprises to be offered for sale. Determine the timing of privatization of particular enterprise. Interfering with the public enterprise, together with the supervising ministries. 2.2 Theoretical framework The theoretical frame work adopted in this paper is Karl Marx’s historical or dialectical materialism which is a basic tenets of Marxism. Marxism, as a political ideology, originated from Karl Marx (1818-1883) and his friend Friedrich Engels (1820-1895).